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Significance and Use
Dissipation Factor and Relative Permittivity—Knowledge of these properties is important in the design of electrical equipment such as cables, transformers, insulators, etc. The numerical product of these two properties of a dielectric system is proportional to the energy loss converted to heat, and is called its loss index (see Terminology D1711). The energy loss reduces the efficiency of electrical equipment. The heat produced tends to chemically degrade the dielectric material and may even lead to thermal runaway. Test results of impregnated specimens can disclose significant differences between combinations of papers and oils that appear similar when the papers and the oils are tested separately. Dissipation factor, particularly at elevated temperatures, is often changed significantly by the presence of a small quantity of impurities in either the liquid or the paper. This practice is useful in the comparison of materials and in evaluating the effects of different papers on a given liquid. Judicious analysis of results with respect to time, temperature, and field strength should be useful in predicting the performance and capabilities of systems using the paper and the liquid. For additional information on the significance of dissipation factor and relative permittivity, see Test Methods D150.
Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies:
A comprehensive discussion of the significance of the dielectric strength test as applied to solid, semi-solid, and liquid materials is given in Appendix X1 of Test Method D149. Other factors peculiar to high-quality composite insulations, such as oil-impregnated papers, are considered in the following:
In tests involving high electrical stresses, immersion of critical parts of a test circuit in oil is a widely used technique for inhibiting corona. However, it has limitations that must be recognized when using the submerged electrode option of this practice (Note 1). Attack on the paper by corona generated in the surrounding fluid at electrode edges can occur whether the fluid is air or oil. Corona occurs at considerably higher voltages in oil than in air. Thick and dense papers are more likely to cause discharge-initiated breakdowns. For interpretation of breakdown measurements the number of edge breakdowns, implying discharge-initiated breakdowns, should be considered.
Note 1—Two techniques are in use in the industry for testing specimens for dielectric breakdown voltage. In one, the test is made with the electrodes and test specimen submerged in the impregnating liquid while in the other the electrodes are not submerged, that is, the specimen is tested in air. Much data has been accumulated using the latter technique. These techniques yield different values of breakdown voltage. Test Method D149 states preference for testing materials in the medium in which they are used. The use of submerged electrodes follows this preference. When testing thick insulating boards, the use of submerged electrodes is greatly preferred.
The results of power frequency tests on oil impregnated papers are useful for screening, research, and quality control, provided that considerable judgment is exercised in interpreting the results. The application of the test results to equipment design and service requires particular caution and skill (see Appendix X1 of Test Method D149).
Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength Under Impulse Conditions—Testing impregnated paper or board under impulse conditions can yield useful data for the designer of electrical equipment. The test results are useful in the comparison of materials and for research studies. For a more general treatise on the significance of impulse testing see Test Method D3426.
1.1 This practice covers the preparation of insulating paper and board impregnated with a liquid dielectric. Where this practice states only “paper,” the same procedure shall apply to board.
1.2 This practice has been found practicable for papers having nominal thickness of 0.05 mm (2 mil) and above. It has been used successfully for insulating board as thick as 6 mm (¼ in.) when care is taken to ensure the specimen geometry necessary for valid measurement of dielectric properties. Suitable geometry depends on the electrode system used. Rigid solid opposing electrodes require flat specimens that have essentially parallel surfaces.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D117 Guide for Sampling, Test Methods, and Specifications for Electrical Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin
D149 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies
D150 Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation
D202 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Untreated Paper Used for Electrical Insulation
D257 Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials
D924 Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids
D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation
D1816 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin Using VDE Electrodes
D1933 Specification for Nitrogen Gas as an Electrical Insulating Material
D3394 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Electrical Insulating Board
D3426 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials Using Impulse Waves
ICS Number Code 29.035.10 (Paper and board insulating materials)
UNSPSC Code 14110000(Paper products)