ASTM D2144 - 07(2013)

    Standard Practices for Examination of Electrical Insulating Oils by Infrared Absorption

    Active Standard ASTM D2144 | Developed by Subcommittee: D27.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 10.03


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    ASTM D2144

    Significance and Use

    5.1 The infrared spectrum of an electrical insulating oil is a record of the absorption of infrared energy over a range of wavelengths. The spectrum indicates the general chemical composition of the test specimen.

    Note 2The infrared spectrum of a pure chemical compound is probably the most characteristic property of that compound. However, in the case of oils, multicomponent systems are being examined whose spectra are the sum total of all the spectra of the individual components. Because the absorption bands of the components may overlap, the spectrum of the oil is not as sharply defined as that for a single compound. For these reasons, these practices may not in every case be suitable for the quantitative estimation of the components of such a complex mixture as mineral oil.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These practices are to be used for the recording and interpretation of infrared absorption spectra of electrical insulating oils from 4000 to 400 cm−1 (2.5 to 25 μm).

    Note 1While these practices are specific to ratio recording or optical null double-beam dispersive spectrophotometers, single-beam and HATR (horizontal attenuated total reflectance), Fourier-transform rapid scan infrared spectrophotometers may also be used. By computerized subtraction techniques, ratio methods can be used. Any of these types of equipment may be suitable if they comply with the specifications described in Practice E932.

    1.2 Two practices are covered, a Reference Standard Practice and a Differential Practice.

    1.3 These practices are designed primarily for use as rapid continuity tests for identifying a shipment of oil from a supplier by comparing its spectrum with that obtained from previous shipments, or with the sample on which approval tests were made. They also may be used for the detection of certain types of contamination in oils, and for the identification of oils in storage or service, by comparison of the spectra of the unknown and known oils. The practices are not intended for the determination of the various constituents of an oil.

    1.4 Warning—Infrared absorption is a tool of high resolving power. Conclusions as to continuity of oil quality should not be drawn until sufficient data have been accumulated so that the shipment-to-shipment variation is clearly established, for example.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D923 Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids

    E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy

    E168 Practices for General Techniques of Infrared Quantitative Analysis

    E932 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Dispersive Infrared Spectrometers


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 29.040.10 (Insulating oils)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121505(Transformer oil or insulating oil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D2144

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