Significance and Use
In the buyer-seller relationship it is necessary that an understanding exists as to the expected nominal characteristics of the product, and the magnitude of permissible departure from the nominal values. Also, it is necessary that an agreement be reached as to how many units of a lot can fall outside of the specification limits without rejection of the lot. It is this latter subject that is addressed by this test method.
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing untreated paper to be used as an electrical insulator or as a constituent of a composite material used for electrical insulating purposes.
1.1.1 Untreated papers are thin, fibrous sheets normally laid down from a water suspension of pulped fibers (usually cellulosic), which may contain various amounts of nonfibrous ingredients, and which are calendared, if required, to obtain desired thickness and density. Nevertheless, these test methods are applicable, generally although not invariably, to papers formed by other means, to papers modified (during or after formation) by additions, and to papers given subsequent mechanical treatments such as creping.
1.1.2 As an electrical insulating and dielectric material, paper is considered “untreated” until it is subjected to a manufacturing process such as drying, impregnation, or varnish treatment.
1.1.3 The test methods given herein were developed specifically for papers having a thickness of 0.75 mm (0.030 in.) or less. A number of these test methods are also suitable for use on other materials such as pulps or boards. Refer to Test Methods D 3376 or Methods D 3394 to determine which tests are applicable to pulps or electrical insulating boards. In the paper industry, some products in thicknesses of less than 0.75 mm are termed “paperboard”. Such products are included within the scope of these methods.
1.1.4 These test methods are applicable to flexible fibrous-mat materials formed from suspensions of fiber in fluids other than water. These mats may have thicknesses approaching 2 mm, and may contain fibers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; fillers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; and flexible polymeric binder materials.
1.2 The procedures appear in the following sections:
|Procedure||Sections||ASTM or TAPPI|
|Absorption (Rise of Water)|| 78 to 83||...|
|Acidity-Alkalinity-pH|| 45 to 54||E 70|
|Air Resistance|| 98 to 101||D 726|
|Aqueous Extract Conductivity|| 55 to 64||...|
|Ash Content|| 40 to 44||D 586|
|Bursting Strength||102 to 107||D 774|
|Chlorides (Water-Extractable)||165 to 183||...|
|Conditioning|| 15||D 6054|
|Conducting Paths||138 to 151||...|
|Density, Apparent|| 29 to 33||...|
|Dielectric Strength||152 to 157||D 149|
|Dimensions of Sheet, Rolls and|
| 16 to 24||D 374|
|Dissipation Factor and Permittivity||158 to 164||D 150|
|Edge-Tearing Resistance||126 to 130||D 827 |
|Fiber Analysis|| 74 to 77||D 1030|
|Folding Endurance||108 to 110||T 423 and D2176|
|Grammage|| 25 to 28||D 646|
|Permittivity||158 to 164||D 150|
|Heat Stability in Air||131 to 137||D 827|
|Impregnation Time|| 84 to 91||...|
|Internal-Tearing Resistance||121 to 125||D 689 or T414|
|Moisture Content|| 34 to 39||D 644 and D3277|
|Particulate Copper||193 to 202||...|
|Particulate Iron||184 to 192||...|
|Reagents|| 4||D 1193|
|Reports|| 14||E 29|
|Sampling|| 6 to 13||D 3636|
|Silver Tarnishing by Paper and|
|203 to 206||T 444|
|Solvent-Soluble Matter|| 65 to 73||...|
|Surface Friction|| 92 to 97||D 528 and T455|
|Tensile Properties||111 to 120||D 76, E4|
|Thickness (see Dimensions)|| 16 to 24||D 374|
1.3 The tests for Holes and Felt Hair Inclusions and the Stain Test for Fine Pores, have been removed from this compilation of test methods. These test methods were specific to grades of capacitor paper formerly covered by Specification D 1930, which has been withdrawn.
Note 1—This compilation of test methods is closely related to IEC Publication 60554-2. Not all of the individual methods included herein are included in IEC 60554-2, nor are all of the methods in IEC 60554-2 included in this standard. The individual procedures as described in the two standards are in general sufficiently close to each other that it is reasonable to expect that test results obtained by most of the procedures specified in either standard will not differ significantly. However, before assuming that a procedure in these test methods is exactly equivalent to an IEC 60554-2 procedure, the written procedures should be compared closely, and if it seems advisable, test results by the two procedures should be compared.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See 43.2.1, 71.1, 143.1, 148.1 and 156.1 for specific hazards.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D76 Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles
D149 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies
D150 Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation
D374 Test Methods for Thickness of Solid Electrical Insulation
D528 Test Method for Machine Direction of Paper and Paperboard
D586 Test Method for Ash in Pulp, Paper, and Paper Products
D644 Test Method for Moisture Content of Paper and Paperboard by Oven Drying
D646 Test Method for Grammage of Paper and Paperboard (Mass Per Unit Area)
D689 Test Method for Internal Tearing Resistance of Paper
D726 Test Method for Resistance of Nonporous Paper to Passage of Air
D774/D774M Test Method for Bursting Strength of Paper
D827 Method of Test for Edge Tearing Strength of Paper
D1030 Test Method for Fiber Analysis of Paper and Paperboard
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1389 Test Method for Proof-Voltage Testing of Thin Solid Electrical Insulating Materials
D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation
D2176 Test Method for Folding Endurance of Paper by the M.I.T. Tester
D2413 Practice for Preparation of Insulating Paper and Board Impregnated with a Liquid Dielectric
D2865 Practice for Calibration of Standards and Equipment for Electrical Insulating Materials Testing
D3277 Test Methods for Moisture Content of Oil-Impregnated Cellulosic Insulation
D3376 Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Pulps to be Used in the Manufacture of Electrical Insulation
D3394 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Electrical Insulating Board
D3636 Practice for Sampling and Judging Quality of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials
D6054 Practice for Conditioning Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode
absorption; acidity; air resistance; alkalinity; aqueous extract conductivity; aqeous extract pH; ash content; basis weight; board; bursting strength; chloride content; conditioning; conducting paths; density; dielectric strength; dimensions; dissipation factor; edge-tearing resistance; fiber analysis; folding endurance; grammage; heat stability; impregnation time; internal-tearing resistance; moisture content; paper; paperboard; particulate copper; particulate iron; permittivity; pH; roll dimensions; sampling; sheet dimensions; silver tarnishing; solvent-soluble content; specific gravity; surface friction; tensile properties; tearing resistance; thickness; Sampling electrical inisulating materials; Sampling paper/paper products; Solvents; Staining process/analysis; Stretch at rupture; Structural analysis/applications--paper materials/applications; Sulfur; Tear testing--paper products/applications; Tensile properties/testing--electrical insulating materials; Tensile properties/testing--paper products; Thickness; Water absorption--electrical insulating materials; Water-extractable matter/processing; Absorption; Acidity, alkalinity, pH--paper; Airflow resistance; Air resistance; Aqueous solutions; Ash--paper; Bursting strength; Capacitor tissue; Chloride analysis--insulation applications; Composition analysis--paper; Conditioning--electrical insulating materials; Conductance and conductivity (electrical)--insulating materials; Conducting paths; Copper content; Current measurement; Density--apparent (bulk); Dielectric breakdown voltage; Dimensions; Dry coverage; Electrical insulating paper/paperboard; Extraction methods; Felt; Fiber analysis; Folding endurance; Friction/frictional properties--insulating materials; Grammage (weight per unit area); Heating tests--electrical insulating materials; Heat stability; Hole count; Impregnation time; Internal tearing resistance; Iron content; Micrometer measurement; Moisture analysis--insulating materials/applications; Paper--acidity/alkalinity/pH; Particulate iron; Permittivity (dielectric constant)--electrical insulating materials; pH; Pores; Reactive sulfur compounds; Rise of water;
ICS Number Code 29.035.10 (Paper and board insulating materials)
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