ASTM D202 - 08

    Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Untreated Paper Used for Electrical Insulation

    Active Standard ASTM D202 | Developed by Subcommittee: D09.19

    Book of Standards Volume: 10.01


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    Significance and Use

    In the buyer-seller relationship it is necessary that an understanding exists as to the expected nominal characteristics of the product, and the magnitude of permissible departure from the nominal values. Also, it is necessary that an agreement be reached as to how many units of a lot can fall outside of the specification limits without rejection of the lot. It is this latter subject that is addressed by this test method.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing untreated paper to be used as an electrical insulator or as a constituent of a composite material used for electrical insulating purposes.

    1.1.1 Untreated papers are thin, fibrous sheets normally laid down from a water suspension of pulped fibers (usually cellulosic), which may contain various amounts of nonfibrous ingredients, and which are calendared, if required, to obtain desired thickness and density. Nevertheless, these test methods are applicable, generally although not invariably, to papers formed by other means, to papers modified (during or after formation) by additions, and to papers given subsequent mechanical treatments such as creping.

    1.1.2 As an electrical insulating and dielectric material, paper is considered untreated until it is subjected to a manufacturing process such as drying, impregnation, or varnish treatment.

    1.1.3 The test methods given herein were developed specifically for papers having a thickness of 0.75 mm (0.030 in.) or less. A number of these test methods are also suitable for use on other materials such as pulps or boards. Refer to Test Methods D 3376 or Methods D 3394 to determine which tests are applicable to pulps or electrical insulating boards. In the paper industry, some products in thicknesses of less than 0.75 mm are termed paperboard. Such products are included within the scope of these methods.

    1.1.4 These test methods are applicable to flexible fibrous-mat materials formed from suspensions of fiber in fluids other than water. These mats may have thicknesses approaching 2 mm, and may contain fibers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; fillers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; and flexible polymeric binder materials.

    1.2 The procedures appear in the following sections:

    ProcedureSectionsASTM or TAPPI
    Reference
    (Modified)
    Absorption (Rise of Water) 78 to 83...
    Acidity-Alkalinity-pH 45 to 54E 70
    Air Resistance 98 to 101D 726
    Aqueous Extract Conductivity 55 to 64...
    Ash Content 40 to 44D 586
    Bursting Strength102 to 107D 774
    Chlorides (Water-Extractable)165 to 183...
    Conditioning 15D 6054
    Conducting Paths138 to 151...
    Density, Apparent 29 to 33...
    Dielectric Strength152 to 157D 149
    Dimensions of Sheet, Rolls and
    Cores
    16 to 24D 374
    Dissipation Factor and Permittivity158 to 164D 150
    Edge-Tearing Resistance126 to 130D 827
    Fiber Analysis 74 to 77D 1030
    Folding Endurance108 to 110T 423 and D2176
    Grammage 25 to 28D 646
    Permittivity158 to 164D 150
    Heat Stability in Air131 to 137D 827
    Impregnation Time 84 to 91...
    Internal-Tearing Resistance121 to 125D 689 or T414
    Moisture Content 34 to 39D 644 and D3277
    Particulate Copper193 to 202...
    Particulate Iron184 to 192...
    Reagents 4D 1193
    Reports 14E 29
    Sampling 6 to 13D 3636
    Silver Tarnishing by Paper and
    Paperboard
    203 to 206T 444
    Solvent-Soluble Matter 65 to 73...
    Surface Friction 92 to 97D 528 and T455
    Tensile Properties111 to 120D 76, E4
    Thickness (see Dimensions) 16 to 24D 374

    1.3 The tests for Holes and Felt Hair Inclusions and the Stain Test for Fine Pores, have been removed from this compilation of test methods. These test methods were specific to grades of capacitor paper formerly covered by Specification D 1930, which has been withdrawn.

    Note 1—This compilation of test methods is closely related to IEC Publication 60554-2. Not all of the individual methods included herein are included in IEC 60554-2, nor are all of the methods in IEC 60554-2 included in this standard. The individual procedures as described in the two standards are in general sufficiently close to each other that it is reasonable to expect that test results obtained by most of the procedures specified in either standard will not differ significantly. However, before assuming that a procedure in these test methods is exactly equivalent to an IEC 60554-2 procedure, the written procedures should be compared closely, and if it seems advisable, test results by the two procedures should be compared.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See 43.2.1, 71.1, 143.1, 148.1 and 156.1 for specific hazards.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D76 Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles

    D149 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies

    D150 Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation

    D374 Test Methods for Thickness of Solid Electrical Insulation

    D528 Test Method for Machine Direction of Paper and Paperboard

    D586 Test Method for Ash in Pulp, Paper, and Paper Products

    D644 Test Method for Moisture Content of Paper and Paperboard by Oven Drying

    D646 Test Method for Grammage of Paper and Paperboard (Mass Per Unit Area)

    D689 Test Method for Internal Tearing Resistance of Paper

    D726 Test Method for Resistance of Nonporous Paper to Passage of Air

    D774/D774M Test Method for Bursting Strength of Paper

    D827 Method of Test for Edge Tearing Strength of Paper

    D1030 Test Method for Fiber Analysis of Paper and Paperboard

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1389 Test Method for Proof-Voltage Testing of Thin Solid Electrical Insulating Materials

    D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation

    D2176 Test Method for Folding Endurance of Paper by the M.I.T. Tester

    D2413 Practice for Preparation of Insulating Paper and Board Impregnated with a Liquid Dielectric

    D2865 Practice for Calibration of Standards and Equipment for Electrical Insulating Materials Testing

    D3277 Test Methods for Moisture Content of Oil-Impregnated Cellulosic Insulation

    D3376 Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Pulps to be Used in the Manufacture of Electrical Insulation

    D3394 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Electrical Insulating Board

    D3636 Practice for Sampling and Judging Quality of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials

    D6054 Practice for Conditioning Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 29.035.10 (Paper and board insulating materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 14110000(Paper products)


    DOI: 10.1520/D0202-08

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