Active Standard ASTM D189 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.06
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
The carbon residue value of burner fuel serves as a rough approximation of the tendency of the fuel to form deposits in vaporizing pot-type and sleeve-type burners. Similarly, provided alkyl nitrates are absent (or if present, provided the test is performed on the base fuel without additive) the carbon residue of diesel fuel correlates approximately with combustion chamber deposits.
The carbon residue value of motor oil, while at one time regarded as indicative of the amount of carbonaceous deposits a motor oil would form in the combustion chamber of an engine, is now considered to be of doubtful significance due to the presence of additives in many oils. For example, an ash-forming detergent additive may increase the carbon residue value of an oil yet will generally reduce its tendency to form deposits.
The carbon residue value of gas oil is useful as a guide in the manufacture of gas from gas oil, while carbon residue values of crude oil residuums, cylinder and bright stocks, are useful in the manufacture of lubricants.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amount of carbon residue (Note 1) left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oil, and is intended to provide some indication of relative coke-forming propensities. This test method is generally applicable to relatively nonvolatile petroleum products which partially decompose on distillation at atmospheric pressure. Petroleum products containing ash-forming constituents as determined by Test Method D482 or IP Method 4 will have an erroneously high carbon residue, depending upon the amount of ash formed (Note 2 and Note 4).
Note 1—The term carbon residue is used throughout this test method to designate the carbonaceous residue formed after evaporation and pyrolysis of a petroleum product under the conditions specified in this test method. The residue is not composed entirely of carbon, but is a coke which can be further changed by pyrolysis. The term carbon residue is continued in this test method only in deference to its wide common usage.
Note 2—Values obtained by this test method are not numerically the same as those obtained by Test Method D524. Approximate correlations have been derived (see Fig. X1.1), but need not apply to all materials which can be tested because the carbon residue test is applied to a wide variety of petroleum products.
Note 3—The test results are equivalent to Test Method D4530, (see Fig. X1.2).
Note 4—In diesel fuel, the presence of alkyl nitrates such as amyl nitrate, hexyl nitrate, or octyl nitrate causes a higher residue value than observed in untreated fuel, which can lead to erroneous conclusions as to the coke forming propensity of the fuel. The presence of alkyl nitrate in the fuel can be detected by Test Method D4046.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D4046 Test Method for Alkyl Nitrate in Diesel Fuels by Spectrophotometry
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4530 Test Method for Determination of Carbon Residue (Micro Method)
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E133 Specification for Distillation Equipment
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)