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Significance and Use
Cation exchange materials are frequently used in the sodium form to exchange divalent and trivalent ions in the influent water for sodium ions on the resin sites. This process is commonly referred to as softening water since it removes those ions that form a “hard” curd of insoluble salts with the fatty acids used in some soaps and that also precipitate when water is boiled. In such a process, sodium chloride is used as the regenerant to return the cation-exchanging groups to the sodium form.
This test method is intended to simulate the performance of such materials in actual usage. It may be used either to compare the performance of new materials or to compare the performance of a material that has been used with its original performance.
Regenerant concentrations and dosages used herein are typical for the types of materials used in this application. If different concentrations or amounts of regenerant are agreed upon by parties using this test method, this fact should be stated when the results are reported. Similarly, the test water specified is the agreed upon standard. Where other test waters or the water to be treated are used in the test, the analysis of the water in terms of total solids, sodium, calcium, magnesium, other di- or trivalent metals as well as the major anions present should be reported with the test results.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the operating capacity of particulate cation-exchange materials when used for the removal of calcium, magnesium, and sodium ions from water. It is intended for use in testing both new and used materials. The following two test methods are included:
|Test Method A—Sodium Cycle||8 to 14|
|Test Method B—Hydrogen Cycle||15 to 21|
1.2 The values given in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 8.1 This test method is designed to simulate operating conditions on a sodium cycle used for the removal of calcium and magnesium and other divalent ions from water. 15.1 This test method is designed to simulate operating conditions on a hydrogen cycle used for the removal of all other cations from water.
8.1 This test method is designed to simulate operating conditions on a sodium cycle used for the removal of calcium and magnesium and other divalent ions from water.
15.1 This test method is designed to simulate operating conditions on a hydrogen cycle used for the removal of all other cations from water.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1067 Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water
D1126 Test Method for Hardness in Water
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D2687 Practices for Sampling Particulate Ion-Exchange Materials
ICS Number Code 71.100.40 (Surface active agents)