Significance and Use
4.1 Hexavalent chromium salts are used extensively in metal finishing and plating applications, in anodizing aluminum, and in the manufacture of paints, dyes, explosives, and ceramics. Trivalent chromium salts are used as mordants in textile dyeing, in the ceramic and glass industry, in the leather industry as a tanning agent, and in photography. Chromium may be present in wastewater from these industries and may also be discharged from chromate-treated cooling waters.
4.2 The hexavalent state of chromium is toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic life. It can produce lung tumors when inhaled and readily induces skin sensitization.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of hexavalent and total chromium in water. Three test methods are included as follows:
0.01 to 0.5
0.1 to 10
5 to 100
1.2 Test Method A is a photometric method that measures dissolved hexavalent chromium only. Test Methods B and C are atomic absorption methods that are generally applicable to the determination of dissolved or total recoverable chromium in water without regard to valence state.
1.3 Test Method A has been used successfully with reagent grade water Types I, II, and III, tap water, 10 % NaCl solution, treated water from a synthetic organic industrial plant that meets National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements, and EPA-extraction procedure leachate water, process water, lake water, effluent treatment, that is, lime neutralization and precipitation of spent pickle liquor and associated rinse water from stainless steel pickling. Test Method C has been used successfully with reagent water, stock scrubber water, lake water, filtered tap water, river water, well water, production plant water, and a condensate from a medium BTU coal gasification process. Matrices used, except for reagent water, are not available for Test Method B. It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of these test methods for waters of untested matrices.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are mathematical conversions and may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see 4.2 and Note 6 and Note 7.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D858 Test Methods for Manganese in Water
D1066 Practice for Sampling Steam
D1068 Test Methods for Iron in Water
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1688 Test Methods for Copper in Water
D1691 Test Methods for Zinc in Water
D1886 Test Methods for Nickel in Water
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D3557 Test Methods for Cadmium in Water
D3558 Test Methods for Cobalt in Water
D3559 Test Methods for Lead in Water
D3919 Practice for Measuring Trace Elements in Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D4691 Practice for Measuring Elements in Water by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D4841 Practice for Estimation of Holding Time for Water Samples Containing Organic and Inorganic Constituents
D5810 Guide for Spiking into Aqueous Samples
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
E60 Practice for Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials by Spectrophotometry
E275 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometers
atomic absorption; chromium; graphite furnace; hexavalent chromium; photometric; water;
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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