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This guide covers the proper selection and use of procedures for testing varnishes. Properties of liquid varnishes that may be tested are as follows: appearance; color (Gardner, tristimulus, and Platinum-Cobalt scale); viscosity (Gardner-Holdt bubble time, Ford cup efflux, and high precision kinematic viscosity); specific gravity; volatile content; nonvolatile matter; flash point (tag closed-cup, Pensky Martens, tag open-cup, and Setaflash closed tester); skinning; acid value; reactivity of paint liquids; quantitative rosin content; and qualitative rosin content (Lieberman-Storch and Halphen-Hicks). Drying and curing properties that may be tested are drying and print free time. Finally, properties of dry varnish that may be tested are as follows: gloss (specular gloss and reflective haze); resistance of dried films to water and alkali; abrasion resistance by carborundum air blast, falling abrasive, and Taber abraser; exterior durability; color of dried film; and clear floor sealers.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing varnishes. Some test methods are included, but most sections refer to specific ASTM test methods.
1.2 Varnishes may be applied under such diverse conditions to so many different surfaces and their dried films may be subjected to so many kinds of wear and exposure, that it is not possible to assure desired performance from a single selection of test methods and numerical results. Those skilled in varnish technology may find partial assurance of obtaining desired qualities in various types of varnishes through careful selection of the methods covered and intelligent interpretation of results.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D479 Method of Test for Reactivity of Paint Liquids
D523 Test Method for Specular Gloss
D658 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Air Blast Abrasive
D968 Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Falling Abrasive
D1200 Test Method for Viscosity by Ford Viscosity Cup
D1209 Test Method for Color of Clear Liquids (Platinum-Cobalt Scale)
D1310 Test Method for Flash Point and Fire Point of Liquids by Tag Open-Cup Apparatus
D1469 Test Method for Total Rosin Acids Content of Coating Vehicles
D1475 Test Method For Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products
D1542 Test Method for Qualitative Detection of Rosin in Varnishes
D1544 Test Method for Color of Transparent Liquids (Gardner Color Scale)
D1545 Test Method for Viscosity of Transparent Liquids by Bubble Time Method
D1546 Practice for Testing the Performance of Clear Floor Sealers
D1639 Test Method for Acid Value of Organic Coating Materials
D1640 Test Methods for Drying, Curing, or Film Formation of Organic Coatings at Room Temperature
D1641 Practice for Conducting Outdoor Exposure Tests of Varnishes
D1644 Test Methods for Nonvolatile Content of Varnishes
D1647 Test Methods for Resistance of Dried Films of Varnishes to Water and Alkali
D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials
D2090 Test Method for Clarity and Cleanness of Paint and Ink Liquids
D2244 Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
D2369 Test Method for Volatile Content of Coatings
D2805 Test Method for Hiding Power of Paints by Reflectometry
D3278 Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale Closed-Cup Apparatus
D3964 Practice for Selection of Coating Specimens for Appearance Measurements
D4039 Test Method for Reflection Haze of High-Gloss Surfaces
D4060 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser
E308 Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System
ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)
UNSPSC Code 31211707(Varnishes)