ASTM D1424 - 09(2013)

    Standard Test Method for Tearing Strength of Fabrics by Falling-Pendulum (Elmendorf-Type) Apparatus

    Active Standard ASTM D1424 | Developed by Subcommittee: D13.60

    Book of Standards Volume: 07.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method for the determination of tearing strength by the falling pendulum type apparatus is used in the trade for the acceptance testing of commercial shipments of fabrics, but caution is advised since technicians may fail to get good agreement between results on certain fabrics. Comparative tests as directed in 5.1.1 may be needed.

    5.1.1 In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results when using this test method for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens that are as homogeneous as possible and that are from a lot of fabric of the type in question. The test specimens should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using appropriate statistical analysis and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the testing began. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and the supplier must agree to interpret future test results with consideration to the known bias.

    5.2 Microprocessor systems for automatic collection of data can provide economical and reliable results when properly calibrated. See Test Methods D2261 and D5587.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the force required to propagate a single-rip tear starting from a cut in a fabric and using a falling-pendulum (Elmendorf-Type) apparatus.

    1.2 This test method applies to most fabrics including woven, layered blankets, napped pile, blanket, and air bag fabrics, provided the fabric does not tear in the direction crosswise to the direction of the force application during the test. The fabrics may be untreated, heavily sized, coated, resin-treated, or otherwise treated. Instructions are provided for testing specimens with, or without, wetting.

    1.3 This test method is suitable only for the warp direction tests of warp-knit fabrics. It is not suited for the course direction of warp knit fabrics or either direction of most other knitted fabrics.

    1.4 The values stated in either SI units or U.S. customary units are to be regarded as standard, but must be used independently of each other. The U.S. customary units may be approximate.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D629 Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles

    D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles

    D2261 Test Method for Tearing Strength of Fabrics by the Tongue (Single Rip) Procedure (Constant-Rate-of-Extension Tensile Testing Machine)

    D2904 Practice for Interlaboratory Testing of a Textile Test Method that Produces Normally Distributed Data

    D2906 Practice for Statements on Precision and Bias for Textiles

    D4848 Terminology Related to Force, Deformation and Related Properties of Textiles

    D4850 Terminology Relating to Fabrics and Fabric Test Methods

    D5587 Test Method for Tearing Strength of Fabrics by Trapezoid Procedure


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.080.30 (Textile fabrics)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 41114722(Tearing strength tester)


    DOI: 10.1520/D1424

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