Significance and Use
This test method is used for acceptance testing in the trade for economic reasons even though it is less accurate than the direct method, Test Method D 1423.
If there are differences or practical significance between reported test results for two laboratories (or more), comparative tests should be performed to determine if their is a statistical bias between them, using competent statistical assistance. As a minimum, the test samples should be used that are as homogeneous as possible, that are drawn from the material from which the disparate test results are obtained, and that are assigned randomly in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. Other materials with established test values may be used for this purpose. The test results from the two laboratories should be compared using a statistical test for unpaired data, at a probability level chosen prior to the testing series. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected, or future test results must be adjusted in consideration of the known bias.
The “setting” of twist in some fibers causes excessive contraction when the yarn is retwisted in the reverse direction. Therefore, the number of turns required to bring the specimen back to its original length may be less than the number of turns removed in untwisting. This effect may be partially offset by the use of higher pretensioning loads; but this increases the danger of stretching the yarn. Little information is available on the correct tensions to use for yarns made from different fibers or with different amounts of twist.
In addition to being less tedious, this test method requires fewer specimens than the direct-counting method and the results may be sufficiently accurate for certain purposes. This test method can be useful in those cases where the main objective is to measure variations from an average value. Another possible application is where a large amount of twist testing is required on yarns of similar type and twist. In this case preliminary tests comparing this method and the direct method could be used to determine the correct pretension.
Twist has important effects on the physical properties of yarn. Low-twist yarn is lofty and is usually preferred for knitting because of its softness, covering power, and warmth. Increasing the amount of twist causes an increase in yarn strength by increasing fiber cohesion, but as the twist angle increases beyond an optimum point, strength decreases due to a loss in effective fiber contribution. Maximum yarn strength is obtained by inserting a medium amount of twist to obtain an optimum balance between these two opposing forces. High twist produces yarns of high density (“hard” or “wiry”) and high elongation and may improve the abrasion and impact resistance of fabrics.
The optimum twist for either manufacturing efficiency or physical properties usually increases as staple length decreases.
The twist in a yarn before it is packaged may be different from that of the yarn after it has been withdrawn from the package because of changes in tension and the effect of the method of withdrawal. If the yarn is withdrawn over-end, a slight increase or decrease in twist will take place, depending upon the direction of the twist in the yarn, the direction of winding on the package, and the length of the turn (or wrap) on the package.
Note 2—The difference in twist between unwinding from the side and over-end is 1/πd, where d is the diameter of the package. Thus, for a 25-mm (1-in.) diameter package, the difference would be about 13 tpm or about one third tpi.
When a yarn is taken from a more complex yarn structure or from a fabric, the resultant twist should be considered only an approximation of the original value because of alterations that may have occurred as a result of the effects of unwinding, handling, and mechanical strains met in processing.
1.1 This test method describes the determination of twist in single spun yarns when only an approximation of the true twist is required.
Note 1—For a more accurate method see Test Method D 1423.
1.2 This test method is applicable to spun single yarns in continuous lengths, and also to spun yarns raveled from fabrics, provided specimens at least 200 mm (8 in.) long can be obtained.
1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in parentheses. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance within this test method.
1.4 This test method has been found satisfactory for use in determining twist in all single ring spun yarns and 100% cotton open-end yarns. For all open-end spun yarns that are not 100 % cotton this test method has not been found to be satisfactory for determining twist but may be used to measure deviation from an average value.
1.5 This specification shows the values in both inch-pound units and SI units. The “inch-pound” units is the technically correct name for the customary units used in the United States. The “SI” units is the technically corrected name for the system of metric units known as the International System of Units. The values stated in either acceptable metric units or in other units shall be regarded separately as standard. The values expressed in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other, without combining in any way.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D1059 Test Method for Yarn Number Based on Short-Length Specimens
D1423 Test Method for Twist in Yarns by Direct-Counting
spun yarn ; twist; Twist--textiles;
ICS Number Code 59.080.20 (Yarns)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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