ASTM D1405 / D1405M - 08(2013)

    Standard Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    Active Standard ASTM D1405 / D1405M | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This test method is intended for use as a guide in cases where an experimental determination of heat of combustion is not available and cannot be made conveniently, and where an estimate is considered satisfactory. It is not intended as a substitute for experimental measurements of heat of combustion.

    Note 3The procedure for the experimental determination of the net heat of combustion is described in Test Methods D240 and D4809.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the net heat of combustion at constant pressure in SI units (megajoules per kilogram) or inch-pound units [Btu per pound].

    1.2 This test method is purely empirical and is applicable only to liquid hydrocarbon fuels derived by normal refining processes from conventional crude oil, which conform to the requirements of specifications for aviation gasolines, or aircraft turbine and jet engine fuels of limited boiling ranges and compositions as described in Note 1.

    Note 1The estimation of the net heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel from aniline-gravity product is justifiable only when the fuel belongs to a well-defined class for which a relation between heat of combustion and aniline-gravity product has been derived from accurate experimental measurements on representative samples of that class. Even in this case, the possibility that the estimates may be in error by large amounts for individual fuels should be recognized. The classes of fuels used to establish the correlation presented in this test method are represented by the following specifications:

    Fuel

    Specification

    Aviation gasoline fuels:

    Specification D910

    Grades 80, 82, 100/130, and 115/145

    Specification D6227

     

    DEF STAN 91–90

     

    NATO Code F-18

    Aviation turbine fuels:

    MIL-DTL-5624

    JP-4,Avtag/FSII

    DEF STAN 91–88

     

    NATO Code F-40

    JP-5,Avcat/FSII

    MIL-DTL-5624

     

    DEF STAN 91–86

     

    NATO Code F-44

    Jet A, Jet A-1, Avtur

    Specification D1655

     

    DEF STAN 91–91

     

    NATO Code F-35


    1.3 This test method is not applicable to pure hydrocarbons. It is not intended as a substitute for experimental measurements of heat of combustion.

    1.4 The heat of combustion may also be determined in SI units by Test Method D4529. Test Method D4529 requires calculation of a single equation for all aviation fuels with a precision equivalent to that of this test method.

    1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

    D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter

    D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)

    D611 Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents

    D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines

    D941 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

    D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1250 Guide for Use of the Petroleum Measurement Tables

    D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)

    D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

    D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D3120 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D4529 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)

    D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    D6227 Specification for Unleaded Aviation Gasoline Containing a Non-hydrocarbon Component

    U.S. Military Standards

    MIL-DTL-5624 Aviation Turbine Fuels, Grades JP-4, JP-5, and JP-5/JP-8 ST

    MIL-T-83133 Aviation Turbine Fuel, Grade JP-8


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101504(Aviation fuel)


    DOI: 10.1520/D1405_D1405M

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