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Significance and Use
5.1 Hardness salts in water, notably calcium and magnesium, are the primary cause of tube and pipe scaling, which frequently causes failures and loss of process efficiency due to clogging or loss of heat transfer, or both.
5.2 Hardness is caused by any polyvalent cations, but those other than Ca and Mg are seldom present in more than trace amounts. The term hardness was originally applied to water in which it was hard to wash; it referred to the soap-wasting properties of water. With most normal alkaline water, these soap-wasting properties are directly related to the calcium and magnesium content.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of hardness in water by titration. This test method is applicable to waters that are clear in appearance and free of chemicals that will complex calcium or magnesium. The lower detection limit of this test method is approximately 2 to 5 mg/L as CaCO3; the upper limit can be extended to all concentrations by sample dilution. It is possible to differentiate between hardness due to calcium ions and that due to magnesium ions by this test method.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1066 Practice for Sampling Steam
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)