Significance and Use
5.1 For a given concrete and a given test apparatus, pullout strengths can be related to compressive strength test results. Such strength relationships are affected by the configuration of the embedded insert, bearing ring dimensions, depth of embedment, and the type of aggregate (lightweight or normal weight). Before use, the relationships must be established for each test system and each new concrete mixture. Such relationships are more reliable if both pullout test specimens and compressive strength test specimens are of similar size, consolidated to similar density, and cured under similar conditions.
—Published reports (1-17) by different researchers present their experiences in the use of pullout test equipment. Refer to ACI 228.1R (14) for guidance on establishing a strength relationship and interpreting test results. The Appendix provides a means for comparing pullout strengths obtained using different configurations.
5.2 Pullout tests are used to determine whether the in-place strength of concrete has reached a specified level so that, for example:
(1) post-tensioning may proceed;
(2) forms and shores may be removed;
(3) structure may be placed into service; or
(4) winter protection and curing may be terminated.
In addition, post-installed pullout tests may be used to estimate the strength of concrete in existing constructions.
5.3 When planning pullout tests and analyzing test results, consideration should be given to the normally expected decrease of concrete strength with increasing height within a given concrete placement in a structural element.
5.4 The measured pullout strength is indicative of the strength of concrete within the region represented by the conic frustum defined by the insert head and bearing ring. For typical surface installations, pullout strengths are indicative of the quality of the outer zone of concrete members and can be of benefit in evaluating the cover zone of reinforced concrete members.
5.5 Cast-in-place inserts require that their locations in the structure be planned in advance of concrete placement. Post-installed inserts can be placed at any desired location in the structure provided the requirements of 7.1 are satisfied.
5.6 This test method is not applicable to other types of post-installed tests that, if tested to failure, do not involve the same failure mechanism and do not produce the same conic frustum as for the cast-in-place test described in this test method (16) .
1.1 This test method covers determination of the pullout strength of hardened concrete by measuring the force required to pull an embedded metal insert and the attached concrete fragment from a concrete test specimen or structure. The insert is either cast into fresh concrete or installed in hardened concrete. This test method does not provide statistical procedures to estimate other strength properties.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this test method.
1.3 The text of this test method references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of this test method.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (WARNING—Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure.)
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E74 Practice of Calibration of Force-Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force Indication of Testing Machines
concrete strength; in-place strength; in-place testing; pullout test;
ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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