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Significance and Use
Research has demonstrated that in addition to the halide ion chloride; fluoride ions, when deposited and concentrated on the surface of austenitic stainless steel, can contribute to external stress corrosion cracking (ESCC) in the absence of inhibiting ions. Two widely used insulation specifications that are specific to ESCC allow the use of the same Test Methods C692 and C871 for evaluation of insulation materials. Both specifications require fluoride ions to be included with chloride ions when evaluating the extractable ions.
Chlorides (and fluorides) can be constituents of the insulating material or of the environment, or both. Moisture in the insulation or from the environment can cause chlorides (and fluorides) to migrate through the insulation and concentrate at the hot stainless steel surface.
The presence of sodium and silicate ions in the insulation has been found to inhibit external stress corrosion cracking caused by chloride (and fluoride) ions, whether such ions come from the insulation itself or from external sources. Furthermore, if the ratio of sodium and silicate ions to chloride (and fluoride) ions is in a certain proportion in the insulation, external stress corrosion cracking as a result of the presence of chloride (and fluoride) in the insulation will be prevented or at least mitigated (see also Specification C795).
1.1 These test methods cover laboratory procedures for the determination of water-leachable chloride, fluoride, silicate, and sodium ions in thermal insulation materials in the parts per million range.
1.2 Selection of one of the test methods listed for each of the ionic determinations required shall be made on the basis of laboratory capability and availability of the required equipment and appropriateness to the concentration of the ion and any possible ion interferences in the extraction solution.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C168 Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulation
C692 Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal Insulations on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel
C795 Specification for Thermal Insulation for Use in Contact with Austenitic Stainless Steel
C871 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Thermal Insulation Materials for Leachable Chloride, Fluoride, Silicate, and Sodium Ions
D1428 Test Method for Test for Sodium and Potassium In Water and Water-Formed Deposits by Flame Photometry
AWWA Standards4500-Si E Heteropoly Blue Method for Silica
ICS Number Code 91.100.60 (Thermal and sound insulating materials)
UNSPSC Code 30141500(Thermal insulation)