ASTM C698 - 16

    Standard Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, and Spectrochemical Analysis of Nuclear-Grade Mixed Oxides ((U, Pu)O2)

    Active Standard ASTM C698 | Developed by Subcommittee: C26.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 12.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Mixed oxide, a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, is used as a nuclear-reactor fuel in the form of pellets. The plutonium content may be up to 10 weight %, and the diluent uranium may be of any 235U enrichment. In order to be suitable for use as a nuclear fuel, the material must meet certain criteria for combined uranium and plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content as described in Specification C833.

    4.1.1 The material is assayed for uranium and plutonium to determine whether the plutonium content is as specified by the purchaser, and whether the material contains the minimum combined uranium and plutonium contents specified on a dry weight basis.

    4.1.2 Determination of the isotopic content of the plutonium and uranium in the mixed oxide is made to establish whether the effective fissile content is in compliance with the purchaser's specifications.

    4.1.3 Impurity content is determined to ensure that the maximum concentration limit of certain impurity elements is not exceeded. Determination of impurities is also required for calculation of the equivalent boron content (EBC) as described in Practice C1233.

    4.2 Fitness for Purpose of Safeguards and Nuclear Safety Applications—Methods intended for use in safeguards and nuclear safety applications shall meet the requirements specified by Guide C1068 for use in such applications.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides, (U, Pu)O2, powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications.

    1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order:

     

    Sections

    Uranium in the Presence of Pu by Potentiometric Titration

      2

    Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry

      2

    Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron (II)

      2

    Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent

    8 to 15

    Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion-Thermal Conductivity

    16 to 26

    Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis

    27 to 34

    Sulfur by Distillation-Spectrophotometry

    35 to 43

    Moisture by the Coulometric, Electrolytic Moisture Analyzer

    44 to 51

    Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry

      3

    Rare Earths by Copper Spark Spectroscopy

    52 to 59

    Trace Impurities by Carrier Distillation Spectroscopy

    60 to 68

    Impurities by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography

    69 to 75

    Total Gas in Reactor-Grade Mixed Dioxide Pellets

       4

    Tungsten by Dithiol-Spectrophotometry

    76 to 84

    Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy

    85 to 88

    Plutonium-238 Isotopic Abundance by Alpha Spectrometry

      5

    Americium-241 in Plutonium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    Uranium and Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    89 to 97

    Oxygen-to-Metal Atom Ratio by Gravimetry

    98 to 105

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (For specific safety precaution statements, see Sections 6, 13.2.5, 41.7, and 93.6.1.)


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C697 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, and Spectrochemical Analysis of Nuclear-Grade Plutonium Dioxide Powders and Pellets

    C833 Specification for Sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) Dioxide Pellets

    C852 Guide for Design Criteria for Plutonium Gloveboxes

    C859 Terminology Relating to Nuclear Materials

    C1068 Guide for Qualification of Measurement Methods by a Laboratory Within the Nuclear Industry

    C1108 Test Method for Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry

    C1165 Test Method for Determining Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry in H2SO4 at a Platinum Working Electrode

    C1168 Practice for Preparation and Dissolution of Plutonium Materials for Analysis

    C1204 Test Method for Uranium in Presence of Plutonium by Iron(II) Reduction in Phosphoric Acid Followed by Chromium(VI) Titration

    C1206 Test Method for Plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) Amperometric Titration

    C1233 Practice for Determining Equivalent Boron Contents of Nuclear Materials

    C1268 Test Method for Quantitative Determination of 241Am in Plutonium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    C1415 Test Method for 238Pu Isotopic Abundance By Alpha Spectrometry

    C1432 Test Method for Determination of Impurities in Plutonium: Acid Dissolution, Ion Exchange Matrix Separation, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopic (ICP/AES) Analysis

    C1625 Test Method for Uranium and Plutonium Concentrations and Isotopic Abundances by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    C1637 Test Method for the Determination of Impurities in Plutonium Metal: Acid Digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) Analysis

    C1672 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Plutonium Isotopic Composition or Concentration by the Total Evaporation Method Using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer

    C1817 Test Method for The Determination of the Oxygen to Metal (O/M) Ratio in Sintered Mixed Oxide ((U, Pu)O2) Pellets by Gravimetry

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D4327 Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography

    E60 Practice for Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials by Spectrophotometry

    E115 Practice for Photographic Processing in Optical Emission Spectrographic Analysis

    E116 Practice for Photographic Photometry in Spectrochemical Analysis

    E130 Practice for Designation of Shapes and Sizes of Graphite Electrodes


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15131500(Nuclear fuel)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/C0698-16

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    Citation Format

    ASTM C698-16, Standard Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, and Spectrochemical Analysis of Nuclear-Grade Mixed Oxides ((U, Pu)O2), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org

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