Significance and Use
The acoustical impedance properties of a sound absorptive material are related to its physical properties, such as airflow resistance, porosity, elasticity, and density. As such, the measurements described in this test method are useful in basic research and product development of sound absorptive materials.
Normal incidence sound absorption coefficients are more useful than random incidence coefficients in certain situations. They are used, for example, to predict the effect of placing material in a small enclosed space, such as inside a machine.
Estimates of the random incidence or statistical absorption coefficients for materials can be obtained from normal incidence impedance data. For materials that are locally reacting, that is, without sound propagation inside the material parallel to its surface, statistical absorption coefficients can be estimated from specific normal acoustic impedance values using an expression derived by London (1). Locally reacting materials include those with high internal losses parallel with the surface such as porous or fibrous materials of high density or materials that are backed by partitioned cavities such as a honeycomb core. Formulas for estimating random incidence sound absorption properties for both locally and bulk-reacting materials, as well as for multilayer systems with and without air spaces have also been developed (2).
1.1 This test method covers the use of an impedance tube, alternatively called a standing wave apparatus, for the measurement of impedance ratios and the normal incidence sound absorption coefficients of acoustical materials.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C423 Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberation Room Method
C634 Terminology Relating to Building and Environmental Acoustics
E548 Guide for General Criteria Used for Evaluating Laboratory Competence
S1.6 Preferred Frequencies and Band Numbers for Acoustical Measurements Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
absorption; impedance; impedance ratio; impedance tube; normal incidence sound absorption coefficient; specific normal acoustic impedance;
ICS Number Code 91.120.20 (Acoustics in buildings. Sound insulation)
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