ASTM C365 / C365M - 11a

    Standard Test Method for Flatwise Compressive Properties of Sandwich Cores

    Active Standard ASTM C365 / C365M | Developed by Subcommittee: D30.09

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.03


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    Significance and Use

    Flatwise compressive strength and modulus are fundamental mechanical properties of sandwich cores that are used in designing sandwich panels. Deformation data can be obtained, and from a complete force versus deformation curve, it is possible to compute the compressive stress at any applied force (such as compressive stress at proportional limit force or compressive strength at the maximum force) and to compute the effective modulus of the core.

    This test method provides a standard method of obtaining the flatwise compressive strength and modulus for sandwich core structural design properties, material specifications, research and development applications, and quality assurance.

    In order to prevent local crushing at the edges of some honeycomb cores, it is often desirable to stabilize the edges with a suitable material, such as a thin layer of resin or thin facings. Flatwise compressive strength data may be generated using either stabilized specimens (reported as stabilized compression strength) or non-stabilized specimens (reported as bare compression strength). It is customary aerospace industry practice to determine compression modulus only when using stabilized specimens.

    Factors that influence the flatwise compressive strength and shall therefore be reported include the following: core material, methods of material fabrication, core geometry (cell size), core density, specimen geometry, specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, specimen alignment, loading procedure, and speed of testing.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of compressive strength and modulus of sandwich cores. These properties are usually determined for design purposes in a direction normal to the plane of facings as the core would be placed in a structural sandwich construction. The test procedures pertain to compression in this direction in particular, but also can be applied with possible minor variations to determining compressive properties in other directions. Permissible core material forms include those with continuous bonding surfaces (such as balsa wood and foams) as well as those with discontinuous bonding surfaces (such as honeycomb).

    1.2 This test method does not cover the determination of compressive core crush properties. Reference Test Method D7336/D7336M for determination of static energy absorption properties of honeycomb sandwich core materials.

    1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.3.1 Within the text the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C271/C271M Test Method for Density of Sandwich Core Materials

    C274 Terminology of Structural Sandwich Constructions

    D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics

    D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials

    D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    D7336/D7336M Test Method for Static Energy Absorption Properties of Honeycomb Sandwich Core Materials

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases

    E1434 Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases

    E1471 Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.120 (Reinforced plastics)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/C0365_C0365M-11A

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM C365 / C365M-11a, Standard Test Method for Flatwise Compressive Properties of Sandwich Cores, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org

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