ASTM C359 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Early Stiffening of Hydraulic Cement (Mortar Method)

    Active Standard ASTM C359 | Developed by Subcommittee: C01.30

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The purpose of this test method is to determine the degree to which a cement mortar develops early stiffening. It is intended for use by those interested in methods for determining the potential early stiffening of hydraulic cement.

    5.2 When used for estimating the relative tendency of a cement to manifest early stiffening, a judgment may be made by comparing the behavior in the penetration series (see 10.4.1 and 10.4.2) and the remix procedure (see 10.4.3) to differentiate a relatively less serious and less persistent tendency to early stiffening (false set) from one that is more persistent and, consequently, more serious (flash set).

    5.3 Severe false setting in a cement may cause difficulty from a placing and handling standpoint, but it is not likely to cause difficulties where concrete is mixed for a longer time than usual, as usually occurs in transit mixing, or where it is remixed prior to placing or transporting, in concrete pumping operations. It is most likely noticed where concrete is mixed for a short period of time in stationary mixers and transported to the forms in non-agitating equipment, as on some paving jobs, and when concrete is made in an on-site batch plant.

    5.4 Cements with severe false setting usually require slightly more mixing water to produce the same consistency, which may result in slightly lower strengths and increased drying shrinkage.

    5.5 Early stiffening resulting from false set is not likely to cause a cement to fail the applicable time of setting requirement.

    5.6 Early stiffening resulting from flash set, depending on severity, can cause a cement to fail the applicable time of setting requirement.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of early stiffening in hydraulic-cement mortar.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    Warning: Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure.2

    1.4 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C183 Practice for Sampling and the Amount of Testing of Hydraulic Cement

    C185 Test Method for Air Content of Hydraulic Cement Mortar

    C187 Test Method for Amount of Water Required for Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement Paste

    C305 Practice for Mechanical Mixing of Hydraulic Cement Pastes and Mortars of Plastic Consistency

    C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials

    C778 Specification for Sand

    C1005 Specification for Reference Masses and Devices for Determining Mass and Volume for Use in the Physical Testing of Hydraulic Cements

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    E2251 Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 91.100.10 (Cement. Gypsum. Lime. Mortar)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30111601(Cement)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/C0359

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM C359-13, Standard Test Method for Early Stiffening of Hydraulic Cement (Mortar Method), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

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