Significance and Use
This test method covers the measurement of heat flux and associated test conditions for flat specimens. The guarded-hot-plate apparatus is generally used to measure steady-state heat flux through materials having a “low” thermal conductivity and commonly denoted as “thermal insulators.” Acceptable measurement accuracy requires a specimen geometry with a large ratio of area to thickness.
Two specimens are selected with their thickness, areas, and densities as identical as possible, and one specimen is placed on each side of the guarded-hot-plate. The faces of the specimens opposite the guarded-hot-plate and primary guard are placed in contact with the surfaces of the cold surface assemblies.
Steady-state heat transmission through thermal insulators is not easily measured, even at room temperature. This is because heat may be transmitted through a specimen by any or all of three separate modes of heat transfer (radiation, conduction, and convection); any inhomogeneity or anisotropy in the specimen may require special experimental precautions to measure that flow of heat; hours or even days may be required to achieve the thermal steady-state; no guarding system can be constructed to force the metered heat to pass only through the test area of insulation specimen being measured; moisture content within the material may cause transient behaviour; and physical or chemical change in the material with time or environmental condition may permanently alter the specimen.
Application of this test method on different test insulations requires that the designer make choices in the design selection of materials of construction and measurement and control systems. Thus there may be different designs for the guarded-hot-plate apparatus when used at ambient versus cryogenic or high temperatures. Test thickness, temperature range, temperature difference range, ambient conditions and other system parameters must also be selected during the design phase. Annex A1 is referenced to the user, which addresses such issues as limitations of the apparatus, thickness measurement considerations and measurement uncertainties, all of which must be considered in the design and operation of the apparatus.
Apparatus constructed and operated in accordance with this test method should be capable of accurate measurements for its design range of application. Since this test method is applicable to a wide range of specimen characteristics, test conditions, and apparatus design, it is impractical to give an all-inclusive statement of precision and bias for the test method. Analysis of the specific apparatus used is required to specify a precision and bias for the reported results. For this reason, conformance with the test method requires that the user must estimate and report the uncertainty of the results under the reported test conditions.
Qualification of a new apparatus. When a new or modified design is developed, tests shall be conducted on at least two materials of known thermal stability and having verified or calibrated properties traceable to a national standards laboratory. Tests shall be conducted for at least two sets of temperature conditions that cover the operating range for the apparatus. If the differences between the test results and the national standards laboratory characterization are determined to be significant, then the source of the error shall, if possible, be identified. Only after successful comparison with the certified samples, can the apparatus claim conformance with this test method. It is recommended that checks be continued on a periodic basis to confirm continued conformance of the apparatus.
The thermal transmission properties of a specimen of material: may vary due to the composition of the material; may be affected by moisture or other environmental conditions; may change with time or temperature exposure; may change with thickness; may change with temperature difference across the specimen; or may change with mean temperature. It must be recognized, therefore, that the selection of a representative value of thermal transmission properties for a material must be based upon a consideration of these factors and an adequate amount of test information.
Since both heat flux and its uncertainty may be dependent upon environmental and apparatus test conditions, as well as intrinsic characteristics of the specimen, the report for this test method shall include a thorough description of the specimen and of the test conditions.
The results of comparative test methods such as Test Method C518 depend on the quality of the heat flux reference standards. The apparatus in this test method is one of the absolute methods used for generation of the reference standards. The accuracy of any comparative method can be no better than that of the referenced procedure. While the precision of a comparative method such as Test Method C518 may be comparable with that of this test method, Test Method C518 cannot be more accurate. In cases of dispute, this test method is the recommended procedure.
1.1 This test method establishes the criteria for the laboratory measurement of the steady-state heat flux through flat, homogeneous specimen(s) when their surfaces are in contact with solid, parallel boundaries held at constant temperatures using the guarded-hot-plate apparatus.
1.2 The test apparatus designed for this purpose is known as a guarded-hot-plate apparatus and is a primary (or absolute) method. This test method is comparable, but not identical, to ISO 8302.
1.3 This test method sets forth the general design requirements necessary to construct and operate a satisfactory guarded-hot-plate apparatus. It covers a wide variety of apparatus constructions, test conditions, and operating conditions. Detailed designs conforming to this test method are not given but must be developed within the constraints of the general requirements. Examples of analysis tools, concepts and procedures used in the design, construction, calibration and operation of a guarded-hot-plate apparatus are given in Refs (1-41).
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C168 Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulation
C518 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
C687 Practice for Determination of Thermal Resistance of Loose-Fill Building Insulation
C1043 Practice for Guarded-Hot-Plate Design Using Circular Line-Heat Sources
C1044 Practice for Using a Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus or Thin-Heater Apparatus in the Single-Sided Mode
C1045 Practice for Calculating Thermal Transmission Properties Under Steady-State Conditions
C1058 Practice for Selecting Temperatures for Evaluating and Reporting Thermal Properties of Thermal Insulation
C1363 Test Method for Thermal Performance of Building Materials and Envelope Assemblies by Means of a Hot Box Apparatus
E230 Specification and Temperature-Electromotive Force (EMF) Tables for Standardized Thermocouples
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ISO8302 Thermal Insulation--Determination of Steady-State Areal Thermal Resistance and Related Properties--Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
error analysis; guarded-hot-plate; heat flow; heat flux; steady-state; thermal conductivity; thermal resistance; thermal transmission; thermal conductance; thermal testing; Error analysis; Heat flux; Hot plate/box methods; Insulating materials; Thermal transmission properties--steady-state;
ICS Number Code 17.200.10 (Heat. Calorimetry)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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