Significance and Use
This procedure can be used for (but is limited to) the following applications:
(1) support glass formulation development to make sure that processing criteria are met,
(2) support production (for example, processing or troubleshooting), and
(3) support model validation.
1.1 These practices cover procedures for determining the liquidus temperature (TL) of nuclear waste, mixed nuclear waste, simulated nuclear waste, or hazardous waste glass in the temperature range from 600°C to 1600°C. This method differs from Practice C829 in that it employs additional methods to determine TL. TL is useful in waste glass plant operation, glass formulation, and melter design to determine the minimum temperature that must be maintained in a waste glass melt to make sure that crystallization does not occur or is below a particular constraint, for example, 1 volume % crystallinity or T1%. As of now, many institutions studying waste and simulated waste vitrification are not in agreement regarding this constraint (1).
1.2 Three methods are included, differing in (1) the type of equipment available to the analyst (that is, type of furnace and characterization equipment), (2) the quantity of glass available to the analyst, (3) the precision and accuracy desired for the measurement, and (4) candidate glass properties. The glass properties, for example, glass volatility and estimated TL, will dictate the required method for making the most precise measurement. The three different approaches to measuring TL described here include the following: (A) Gradient Temperature Furnace Method (GT), (B) Uniform Temperature Furnace Method (UT), and (C) Crystal Fraction Extrapolation Method (CF). This procedure is intended to provide specific work processes, but may be supplemented by test instructions as deemed appropriate by the project manager or principle investigator. The methods defined here are not applicable to glasses that form multiple immiscible liquid phases. Immiscibility may be detected in the initial examination of glass during sample preparation (see 9.3). However, immiscibility may not become apparent until after testing is underway.
1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C162 Terminology of Glass and Glass Products
C829 Practices for Measurement of Liquidus Temperature of Glass by the Gradient Furnace Method
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E2282 Guide for Defining the Test Result of a Test Method
Z540.3 American National Standards Institute/National Conference of Standards Laboratories (ANSI/NCSL) Requirements for the Calibration of Measuring and Test Equipment
calibration; gradient furnace; liquidus temperature; uniform;
ICS Number Code 81.040.10 (Raw materials and raw glass)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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