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Significance and Use
Common types of SCM include fly ash, slag cement, calcined clays, and silica fume. The introduction and widespread use of fly ash, slag cement, calcined clay, and silica fume have been characterized and supported by significant research and development programs, preconstruction testing, field testing and long term performance monitoring. As the technical and economic benefits of SCM have been recognized, and as sustainability and environmental awareness resulted in the need to develop new materials and new ways to use materials not previously utilized, new sources of potential SCM are being proposed for use in concrete as ASCM.
If an ASCM does not yet have a significant record of performance in concrete, a comprehensive evaluation based on this Guide should be undertaken, and it should be recognized that this ASCM might be introduced for a specific project or into a limited marketplace to initially demonstrate its performance. The user should bear in mind the intended end use of the ASCM and use appropriate test methods to establish its suitability. An ASCM that demonstrates good performance through a comprehensive evaluation as outlined in this guide could then be considered to have access to broader markets and could be considered for inclusion in an ASTM standard for SCM. For this reason, the test program to demonstrate acceptable performance should include concrete mixtures with a range of characteristics specific to the ASCM’s intended use.
In the absence of long-term durability or acceptable field performance, prospective users are advised to apply appropriate risk management and engineering practice in the use of an ASCM.
1.1 This Guide is intended to provide a technical approach to the evaluation of alternative supplementary cementitious materials such as pozzolans and hydraulic materials that fall outside the scope of Specifications C618, C989, and C1240. This Guide provides the initial steps for a comprehensive evaluation of an ASCM that provides due diligence for its specific intended uses in concrete; however, it does not evaluate conformance to all possible performance criteria for all types of concrete mixtures.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 Performing the tests or meeting the test limits in this guide should not imply that the material tested meets the requirements of Specifications C618, C989, and C1240. These materials should not be represented as such and each specific source is to be evaluated separately.
1.4 This guide does not purport to address all environmental and safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to establish the appropriate environmental, health, and safety issues, and identify appropriate risk management procedures.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C39/C39M Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
C78 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading)
C109/C109M Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens)
C114 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
C138/C138M Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete
C143/C143M Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
C157/C157M Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete
C186 Test Method for Heat of Hydration of Hydraulic Cement
C204 Test Methods for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air-Permeability Apparatus
C231/C231M Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
C232/C232M Test Methods for Bleeding of Concrete
C311 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete
C403/C403M Test Method for Time of Setting of Concrete Mixtures by Penetration Resistance
C430 Test Method for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by the 45-m (No. 325) Sieve
C457/C457M Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete
C469 Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poissons Ratio of Concrete in Compression
C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete
C666/C666M Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing
C672/C672M Test Method for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Surfaces Exposed to Deicing Chemicals
C989 Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and Mortars
C1012/C1012M Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution
C1064/C1064M Test Method for Temperature of Freshly Mixed Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
C1202 Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concretes Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration
C1218/C1218M Test Method for Water-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete
C1240 Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures
C1293 Test Method for Determination of Length Change of Concrete Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction
C1543 Test Method for Determining the Penetration of Chloride Ion into Concrete by Ponding
C1556 Test Method for Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of Cementitious Mixtures by Bulk Diffusion
C1567 Test Method for Determining the Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Combinations of Cementitious Materials and Aggregate (Accelerated Mortar-Bar Method)
C1585 Test Method for Measurement of Rate of Absorption of Water by Hydraulic-Cement Concretes
C1679 Practice for Measuring Hydration Kinetics of Hydraulic Cementitious Mixtures Using Isothermal Calorimetry
C1702 Test Method for Measurement of Heat of Hydration of Hydraulic Cementitious Materials Using Isothermal Conduction Calorimetry
D3987 Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
D4326 Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence
ACI StandardsACI318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
ICS Number Code 91.100.10 (Cement. Gypsum. Lime. Mortar)
UNSPSC Code 30111500(Concrete and mortars)