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Significance and Use
Uranium and plutonium oxides can be used as a nuclear-reactor fuel in the form of pellets. In order to be suitable for use as a nuclear fuel the starting material must meet certain specifications, such as found in Specifications C757, C833, C753, C776, C1008, or as specified by the purchaser. The uranium and/or plutonium concentration and isotopic abundances are measured by mass spectrometry following this test method.
The separated heavy element fractions placed on mass spectrometric filaments must be very pure. The quantity required depends upon the sensitivity of the instrument detection system. If an electron multiplier detector is to be used, only a few nanograms are required. If a Faraday cup is used, a few micrograms are needed. Chemical purity of the sample becomes more important as the sample size decreases, because ion emission of the sample is suppressed by impurities.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in solutions. The purified uranium or plutonium from samples ranging from nuclear materials to environmental or bioassay matrices is loaded onto a mass spectrometric filament. The isotopic ratio is determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, the concentration is determined by isotope dilution.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Values in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C753 Specification for Nuclear-Grade, Sinterable Uranium Dioxide Powder
C757 Specification for Nuclear-Grade Plutonium Dioxide Powder, Sinterable
C776 Specification for Sintered Uranium Dioxide Pellets
C833 Specification for Sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) Dioxide Pellets
C859 Terminology Relating to Nuclear Materials
C1008 Specification for Sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) Dioxide Pellets--Fast Reactor Fuel
C1068 Guide for Qualification of Measurement Methods by a Laboratory Within the Nuclear Industry
C1156 Guide for Establishing Calibration for a Measurement Method Used to Analyze Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials
C1168 Practice for Preparation and Dissolution of Plutonium Materials for Analysis
C1347 Practice for Preparation and Dissolution of Uranium Materials for Analysis
C1411 Practice for The Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium and Plutonium Prior to Isotopic Analysis
C1415 Test Method for 238Pu Isotopic Abundance By Alpha Spectrometry
C1614 Practice for the Determination of 237Np, 232Th, 235U and 238U in Urine by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Gamma Ray Spectrometry
D3084 Practice for Alpha-Particle Spectrometry of Water
Other DocumentsInternationalTargetV for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials K. Zhao et. al., International Target Values 2010 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials, International Atomic Energy Agency STR-368, 2010.
ICS Number Code 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)
UNSPSC Code 15131500(Nuclear fuel)