Significance and Use
NDA measurement practices aimed at achieving quality results are described in this guide. The application of the material provided in this guide should be determined on a case by case basis. Not all elements are required for all applications.
Nondestructive assay measurements are typically performed when the items measured or goals of the measurement program favor NDA over destructive analysis. NDA is typically favored when collecting a representative sample of the item is difficult or impractical (for example, scrap and waste items), personnel exposure would be significant, spread of contamination from sampling would occur, generation of secondary waste must be minimized, the weight and/or tare weight of the item cannot easily be determined (for example, in place process equipment), rapid turn around of the measurement results is needed, or the NDA measurement is significantly less expensive than the equivalent destructive analysis.
The principles provided in this guide should be used to determine which type of measurement is best suited to the measurement application. This determination involves consideration of the characteristics of the items to be measured, as well as the goals of the measurement program.
This guide applies to the suite of NDA instruments and measurement methods, many of which are described in detail in Refs (1) and (2). A partial listing of measurement methods and applicable use references is provided in 5.6.1. It is incumbent upon the user to seek additional guidance within ASTM method-specific standards, as this guide does not take precedence. Additional information on specific methods is best found in technical meeting transactions, journals, commercial application notes, and NRC/DOE publications.
This guide may be applied to many situations spanning the range of nuclear materials from product through waste. Typical applications include: the measurement and characterization of transuranic wastes, low-level wastes, and mixed wastes; the determination of radioactivity below some regulatory threshold, estimated for non-detected radionuclides; the measurement of safeguarded nuclear materials; shipper receiver confirmation; confirmation of nuclear material inventory; support of nuclear criticality safety evaluations; measurement of holdup of special nuclear material in process systems; support of decontamination and decommissioning activities; and in-situ analyses of facilities, glove-boxes, hot cells, and the environment prior to and following demolition.
When applied to measurement of waste, this guide should be used in conjunction with a waste management plan that segregates the contents of assay items into material categories according to some or all of the following criteria: bulk density of the waste, chemical forms of the radioactive constituents and matrix, (α, n) neutron intensity, hydrogen (moderator) and absorber content, thickness of fissile mass(es), and the assay item container size and composition. Each matrix may require a different set of calibration standards and may have different mass calibration limits. The effect on the quality of the assay (that is, maximizing precision and minimizing bias) can significantly depend on the degree of adherence to this waste management plan.
This guide addresses elements of quality measurement practice such as; nuclear measurement instrumentation and its care; common hazards; facility readiness and requirements to support the NDA equipment; project scoping, requirements and objectives; assembly and deployment of the instrument; calibration and test; computational modeling to augment physical testing; measurement validation; preventive maintenance; and the measurement control program.
1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas.
1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes discussion of specific measurement situations. As a result, compliance with practices recommended in this guide must be based on a thorough understanding of contributing variables and performance requirements of the specific measurement application.
1.3 Selection of the best instrument for a given measurement application and advice on the use of this instrument must be provided by a qualified NDA professional following guidance provided in Guide C 1490. This guide is to be used as a reference, and to supplement the critical thinking, professional skill, expert judgment, and experimental test and verification needed to ensure that the instrumentation and methods have been properly implemented.
1.4 The intended audience for this guide includes but is not limited to Management, Auditor Support, NDA Qualified Instrument Operators, NDA Technical Specialists, and NDA Professionals.
1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1030 Test Method for Determination of Plutonium Isotopic Composition by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry
C1133 Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material in Low-Density Scrap and Waste by Segmented Passive Gamma-Ray Scanning
C1207 Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Plutonium in Scrap and Waste by Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting
C1215 Guide for Preparing and Interpreting Precision and Bias Statements in Test Method Standards Used in the Nuclear Industry
C1221 Test Method for Nondestructive Analysis of Special Nuclear Materials in Homogeneous Solutions by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry
C1254 Test Method for Determination of Uranium in Mineral Acids by X-Ray Fluorescence
C1268 Test Method for Quantitative Determination of Americium 241 in Plutonium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry
C1316 Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Material in Scrap and Waste by Passive-Active Neutron Counting Using 252Cf Shuffler
C1455 Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods
C1458 Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Plutonium, Tritium and 241Am by Calorimetric Assay
C1490 Guide for the Selection, Training and Qualification of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Personnel
C1493 Test Method for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Material in Waste by Passive and Active Neutron Counting Using a Differential Die-Away System
C1500 Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Plutonium by Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting
C1514 Test Method for Measurement of 235U Fraction Using Enrichment Meter Principle
C1673 Terminology of C26.10 Nondestructive Assay Methods
Neutron moderators; Nondestructive evaluation (NDE); Passive neutron coincidence counting; Secular equillibrium; Total measurement uncertainty (TMU);
ICS Number Code 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)
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