Significance and Use
The high temperature capabilities of advanced ceramics are a key performance benefit for many demanding engineering applications. In many of those applications, advanced ceramics will have to perform across a broad temperature range with exposure to sudden changes in temperature and heat flux. Thermal shock resistance of the ceramic material is a critical factor in determining the durability of the component under transient thermal conditions.
This test method is useful for material development, quality assurance, characterization, and assessment of durability. It has limited value for design data generation, because of the limitations of the flexural test geometry in determining fundamental tensile properties.
Appendix X1 (following EN 820-3) provides an introduction to thermal stresses, thermal shock, and critical material/geometry factors. The appendix also contains a mathematical analysis of the stresses developed by thermal expansion under steady state and transient conditions, as determined by mechanical properties, thermal characteristics, and heat transfer effects.
1.1 This test method describes the determination of the resistance of advanced ceramics to thermal shock by water quenching. The method builds on the experimental principle of rapid quenching of a test specimen at an elevated temperature in a water bath at room temperature. The effect of the thermal shock is assessed by measuring the reduction in flexural strength produced by rapid quenching of test specimens heated across a range of temperatures. For a quantitative measurement of thermal shock resistance, a critical temperature interval is determined by a reduction in the mean flexural strength of at least 30 %. The test method does not determine thermal stresses developed as a result of a steady state temperature differences within a ceramic body or of thermal expansion mismatch between joined bodies. The test method is not intended to determine the resistance of a ceramic material to repeated shocks. Since the determination of the thermal shock resistance is performed by evaluating retained strength, the method is not suitable for ceramic components; however, test specimens cut from components may be used.
1.2 The test method is intended primarily for dense monolithic ceramics, but may also be applicable to certain composites such as whisker- or particulate-reinforced ceramic matrix composites that are macroscopically homogeneous.
1.3 Values expressed in this standard test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) and Standard IEEE/ASTM SI 10.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C373 Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
C1322 Practice for Fractography and Characterization of Fracture Origins in Advanced Ceramics
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E616 Terminology Relating to Fracture Testing (Discontinued 1996)
EN820-3 Advanced Technical Ceramics--Monolithic Ceramics--Thermomechanical Properties--Part 3: Determination of Resistance to Thermal Shock by Water Quenching Available from European Committee for Standardization (CEN), 36 rue de Stassart, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium, http://www.cenorm.be.
ceramics; quench; strength; thermal shock; Advanced ceramics; Flexural testing--ceramics; Quantitative analysis/measurement; Quenching; Rapid quenching; Thermal shock materials/testing; Water quenching
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Citing ASTM Standards
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