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Significance and Use
Water-extractable chloride, when present in sufficient amount, has a potential to initiate or accelerate corrosion of metals, such as steel, embedded in or contacting a cementitious system, such as mortar, grout, or concrete. This test method is applicable when aggregates contain a high background of naturally occurring chloride (see ACI 222.1–96 ). Test Method C1152/C1152M determines acid-soluble chloride and Test Method C1218/C1218M determines water-soluble chloride. Both Test Methods C1152/C1152M and C1218/C1218M pulverize the sample to a fine powder or fine granular material. The Soxhlet method is intended to use nonpulverized material. Results with some aggregates have shown that the Soxhlet procedure extracts an extremely low amount of chloride, with most of it remaining in the rock, and therefore, it is not available for corrosion.
The Soxhlet extraction apparatus consists of three sections: the boiling flask, which contains reagent water at the beginning of the test; the extractor, which contains the sample inside a thimble; and, the condenser. The extractor functions by boiling the water, which condenses and drips on to the sample. When the water attains a fixed height above the sample, the extractor siphons the water from the thimble back to the boiling flask. The process repeats itself until the test is terminated. (Refer to Fig. 1.)
1.1 This test method provides procedures for sampling and analysis of aggregate for water-extractable chloride using a Soxhlet extractor.
Note 1—This test method is to be used when significantly high chloride content has been found in aggregates, concretes, or mortars.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C114 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
C1152/C1152M Test Method for Acid-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete
C1218/C1218M Test Method for Water-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete
D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
American Concrete Institute StandardACI222.1–96 Provisional Standard Test Method for Water-Soluble Chloride Available for Corrosion of Embedded Steel in Mortar and Concrete Using the Soxhlet Extractor Available from American Concrete Institute (ACI), P.O. Box 9094, Farmington Hills, MI 48333-9094, http://www.concrete.org.
ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)
UNSPSC Code 30111800(Aggregates)