Significance and Use
5.1 Surface grinding can cause a significant decrease in the flexure strength of advanced ceramics materials. The magnitude of the loss in strength is determined by the grinding conditions and the response of the material. This test method can be used to obtain a detailed characterization of the relationship between grinding conditions and flexure strength for an advanced ceramic material. The effect on flexure strength of varying a single grinding parameter or several grinding parameters can be measured. The method may also be used to compare and rank different materials according to their response to one or more different grinding conditions. Results obtained by this method can be used to develop an optimum grinding process with respect to maximizing material removal rate for a specified flexure strength requirement. The test method can assist in the development of improved grinding-damage-tolerant ceramic materials. It may also be used for quality control purposes to monitor and assure the consistency of a grinding process in the fabrication of parts from advanced ceramic materials. The test method is applicable to grinding methods that generate a planar surface and is not directly applicable to grinding methods that produce non-planar surfaces such as cylindrical and centerless grinding.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the effect of surface grinding on the flexure strength of advanced ceramics. Surface grinding of an advanced ceramic material can introduce microcracks and other changes in the near surface layer, generally referred to as damage (See Fig. 1). Such damage can result in a change—most often a decrease—in flexure strength of the material. The degree of change in flexure strength is determined by both the grinding process and the response characteristics of the specific ceramic material. This method compares the flexure strength of an advanced ceramic material after application of a user-specified surface grinding process with the baseline flexure strength of the same material. The baseline flexure strength is obtained after application of a surface grinding process specified in this standard. The baseline flexure strength is expected to approximate closely the inherent strength of the material. The flexure strength is measured by means of ASTM standard flexure test methods.
FIG. 1 Microcracks Associated with Grinding (Ref. 1)
1.2 Flexure test methods used to determine the effect of surface grinding are C1161 Test Method for Flexure Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures and C1211 Test Method for Flexure Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures.
1.3 Materials covered in this standard are those advanced ceramics that meet criteria specified in flexure testing standards C1161 and C1211.
1.4 The flexure test methods supporting this standard (C1161 and C1211) require specimens that have a rectangular cross section, flat surfaces, and that are fabricated with specific dimensions and tolerances. Only grinding processes that are capable of generating the specified flat surfaces, i.e. planar grinding modes, are suitable for evaluation by this method. Among the applicable machine types are horizontal and vertical spindle reciprocating surface grinders, horizontal and vertical spindle rotary surface grinders, double disk grinders, and tool-and-cutter grinders. Incremental cross-feed, plunge, and creep-feed grinding methods may be used.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
C1211 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures
C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
C1322 Practice for Fractography and Characterization of Fracture Origins in Advanced Ceramics
C1341 Test Method for Flexural Properties of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composites
surface grinding; machining; advanced ceramic; flexure strength; baseline flexure strength; damage tolerance;
ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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