ASTM C1424 - 10

    Standard Test Method for Monotonic Compressive Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Active Standard ASTM C1424 | Developed by Subcommittee: C28.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.01


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    Significance and Use

    This test method may be used for material development, material comparison, quality assurance, characterization, and design data generation.

    Generally, resistance to compression is the measure of the greatest strength of a monolithic advanced ceramic. Ideally, ceramics should be compressively stressed in use, although engineering applications may frequently introduce tensile stresses in the component. Nonetheless, compressive behavior is an important aspect of mechanical properties and performance. Although tensile strength distributions of ceramics are probabilistic and can be described by a weakest link failure theory, such descriptions have been shown to be inapplicable to compressive strength distributions in at least one study (1). However, the need to test a statistically significant number of compressive test specimens is not obviated. Therefore, a sufficient number of test specimens at each testing condition is required for statistical analysis and design.

    Compression tests provide information on the strength and deformation of materials under uniaxial compressive stresses. Uniform stress states are required to effectively evaluate any nonlinear stress-strain behavior which may develop as the result of cumulative damage processes (for example, microcracking) which may be influenced by testing mode, testing rate, processing or compositional effects, microstructure, or environmental influences.

    The results of compression tests of test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particular material or selected portions of a part, or both, may not totally represent the strength and deformation properties in the entire, full-size product or its in-service behavior in different environments.

    For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized compressive test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the material from which they were taken for given primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments.

    cterization, and design data generation.

    Generally, resistance to compression is the measure of the greatest strength of a monolithic advanced ceramic. Ideally, ceramics should be compressively stressed in use, although engineering applications may frequently introduce tensile stresses in the component. Nonetheless, compressive behavior is an important aspect of mechanical properties and performance. Although tensile strength distributions of ceramics are probabilistic and can be described by a weakest link failure theory, such descriptions have been shown to be inapplicable to compressive strength distributions in at least one study (1).3 However, the need to test a statistically significant number of compressive test specimens is not obviated. Therefore, a sufficient number of test specimens at each testing condition is required for statistical analysis and design.

    Compression tests provide information on the strength and deformation of materials under uniaxial compressive stresses. Uniform stress states are required to effectively evaluate any nonlinear stress-strain behavior which may develop as the result of cumulative damage processes (for example, microcracking) which may be influenced by testing mode, testing rate, processing or compositional effects, microstructure, or environmental influences.

    The results of compression tests of test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particular material or selected portions of a part, or both, may not totally represent the strength and deformation properties in the entire, full-size product or its in-service behavior in different environments.

    For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized compressive test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the material from which they were taken for given primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of compressive strength including stress-strain behavior, under monotonic uniaxial loading of advanced ceramics at ambient temperature. This test method is restricted to specific test specimen geometries. In addition, test specimen fabrication methods, testing modes (load or displacement), testing rates (load rate, stress rate, displacement rate, or strain rate), allowable bending, and data collection and reporting procedures are addressed. Compressive strength as used in this test method refers to the compressive strength obtained under monotonic uniaxial loading. Monotonic loading refers to a test conducted at a constant rate in a continuous fashion, with no reversals from test initiation to final fracture.

    1.2 This test method is intended primarily for use with advanced ceramics that macroscopically exhibit isotropic, homogeneous, continuous behavior. While this test method is intended for use on monolithic advanced ceramics, certain whisker- or particle-reinforced composite ceramics as well as certain discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite ceramics may also meet these macroscopic behavior assumptions. Generally, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) do not macroscopically exhibit isotropic, homogeneous, continuous behavior and, application of this test method to these materials is not recommended.

    1.3 Values expressed in this test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) and .

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C773 Test Method for Compressive (Crushing) Strength of Fired Whiteware Materials

    C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics

    D695 Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems

    E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)

    E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/C1424-10

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM C1424-10, Standard Test Method for Monotonic Compressive Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010, www.astm.org

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