ASTM C1401 - 09a

    Standard Guide for Structural Sealant Glazing

    Active Standard ASTM C1401 | Developed by Subcommittee: C24.10

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.07


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    Significance and Use

    The old saying A chain is only as strong as its weakest link is very applicable to a SSG system. In reality, a SSG system, to be successful, must establish and maintain a chain of adhesion. For example, a factory applied finish must adhere adequately to a metal framing member, a structural glazing sealant to that metal finish, that structural glazing sealant to a reflective coating on a glass lite, and lastly, that reflective coating to a glass surface. This guide will assist in the identification and development of, among others, performance criteria, test methods, and industry practices that should be implemented to obtain the required structural glazing sealant adhesion and compatibility with other system components.

    Although this guide has been arranged to permit easy access to specific areas of interest, it is highly recommended that the entire guide is read and understood before establishing the requirements for a particular SSG system.

    This guide should not be the only criteria upon which the design and installation of a SSG system is based. The information herein is provided to assist in the development of a specific program with a goal of achieving a successful SSG system installation. Information and guidelines are provided for the evaluation, design, installation, and maintenance of a SSG system and many of its various components. Considering the range of properties of structural glazing silicone sealants, as well as the many types of framing system designs, material combinations that can be used, various material finishes, and the many types and varieties of accessories, the information contained herein is general in nature.

    Generally, the design, fabrication, and installation of a SSG system requires more technical knowledge and experience then is required for a conventionally glazed window or curtain wall system. To ensure the success of a SSG system, it is important that suppliers, fabricators, and installers of materials and components have a sound knowledge of SSG system requirements and become involved in the design and planning for each application. Suppliers of, among others, sealants, framing finishes, glazing materials and components, and various accessories should review and agree with the developed SSG system plans, requirements, and quality control program.

    5.5 The results of not planning for and implementing quality control programs during at least the design, testing, fabrication, and installation phases of a SSG system's development can result in less than desirable results, which can include nuisance air or water leakage or catastrophic failure where life safety of the public can be at risk (1, 2).

    1. Scope

    1.1 Structural sealant glazing, hereinafter referred to as SSG, is an application where a sealant not only can function as a barrier against the passage of air and water through a building envelope, but also primarily provides structural support and attachment of glazing or other components to a window, curtain wall, or other framing system.

    1.2 This guide provides information useful to design professionals, manufacturers, contractors, and others for the design and installation of a SSG system. This information is applicable only to this glazing method when used for a building wall that is not more than 15° from vertical; however, limited information is included concerning a sloped SSG application.

    1.3 Only a silicone chemically curing sealant specifically formulated, tested, and marketed for structural sealant glazing is acceptable for a SSG system application.

    1.4 The committee with jurisdiction for this standard is not aware of any comparable standard published by other organizations.

    1.5 The calculations and values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Values in parenthesis and inch-pound units are for information only. SI units in this guide are in conformance with IEEE/ASTM SI 10.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus

    C99 Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Dimension Stone

    C119 Terminology Relating to Dimension Stone

    C162 Terminology of Glass and Glass Products

    C503 Specification for Marble Dimension Stone

    C509 Specification for Elastomeric Cellular Preformed Gasket and Sealing Material

    C510 Test Method for Staining and Color Change of Single- or Multicomponent Joint Sealants

    C568 Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone

    C615 Specification for Granite Dimension Stone

    C717 Terminology of Building Seals and Sealants

    C719 Test Method for Adhesion and Cohesion of Elastomeric Joint Sealants Under Cyclic Movement (Hockman Cycle)

    C794 Test Method for Adhesion-in-Peel of Elastomeric Joint Sealants

    C864 Specification for Dense Elastomeric Compression Seal Gaskets, Setting Blocks, and Spacers

    C880 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Dimension Stone

    C920 Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants

    C1036 Specification for Flat Glass

    C1048 Specification for Heat-Strengthened and Fully Tempered Flat Glass

    C1087 Test Method for Determining Compatibility of Liquid-Applied Sealants with Accessories Used in Structural Glazing Systems

    C1115 Specification for Dense Elastomeric Silicone Rubber Gaskets and Accessories

    C1135 Test Method for Determining Tensile Adhesion Properties of Structural Sealants

    C1172 Specification for Laminated Architectural Flat Glass

    C1184 Specification for Structural Silicone Sealants

    C1193 Guide for Use of Joint Sealants

    C1201 Test Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Dimension Stone Cladding Systems by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    C1248 Test Method for Staining of Porous Substrate by Joint Sealants

    C1249 Guide for Secondary Seal for Sealed Insulating Glass Units for Structural Sealant Glazing Applications

    C1253 Test Method for Determining the Outgassing Potential of Sealant Backing

    C1265 Test Method for Determining the Tensile Properties of an Insulating Glass Edge Seal for Structural Glazing Applications

    C1294 Test Method for Compatibility of Insulating Glass Edge Sealants with Liquid-Applied Glazing Materials

    C1330 Specification for Cylindrical Sealant Backing for Use with Cold Liquid-Applied Sealants

    C1369 Specification for Secondary Edge Sealants for Structurally Glazed Insulating Glass Units

    C1392 Guide for Evaluating Failure of Structural Sealant Glazing

    C1394 Guide for In-Situ Structural Silicone Glazing Evaluation

    C1472 Guide for Calculating Movement and Other Effects When Establishing Sealant Joint Width

    C1487 Guide for Remedying Structural Silicone Glazing

    C1521 Practice for Evaluating Adhesion of Installed Weatherproofing Sealant Joints

    C1564 Guide for Use of Silicone Sealants for Protective Glazing Systems

    D1566 Terminology Relating to Rubber

    D2203 Test Method for Staining from Sealants

    D4541 Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers

    E283 Test Method for Determining Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the Specimen

    E330 Test Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Windows, Doors, Skylights and Curtain Walls by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E331 Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E547 Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference

    E631 Terminology of Building Constructions

    E783 Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakage Through Installed Exterior Windows and Doors

    E1105 Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of Installed Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls, by Uniform or Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference

    E1233 Test Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Windows, Doors, Skylights, and Curtain Walls by Cyclic Air Pressure Differential

    E1300 Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings

    E1424 Test Method for Determining the Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, and Doors Under Specified Pressure and Temperature Differences Across the Specimen

    E1425 Practice for Determining the Acoustical Performance of Windows, Doors, Skylight, and Glazed Wall Systems

    E1825 Guide for Evaluation of Exterior Building Wall Materials, Products, and Systems

    E1886 Test Method for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missile(s) and Exposed to Cyclic Pressure Differentials

    E1996 Specification for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Windborne Debris in Hurricanes

    E2099 Practice for the Specification and Evaluation of Pre-Construction Laboratory Mockups of Exterior Wall Systems

    E2128 Guide for Evaluating Water Leakage of Building Walls

    E2203 Specification for Dense Thermoplastic Elastomers Used for Compression Seals, Gaskets, Setting Blocks, Spacers and Accessories

    E2431 Practice for Determining the Resistance of Single Glazed Annealed Architectural Flat Glass to Thermal Loadings

    G15 Terminology Relating to Corrosion and Corrosion Testing

    CPSC Standard

    16CFR1201 Standard on Architectural Glazing Materials Available from the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), Washington, D.C. 20207.

    ANSI Standard

    Z97.1 Safety Performance Specifications and Methods of Test for Glazing Materials Used in Buildings

    AAMA Standards

    TIR-A11–1996 Maximum Allowable Deflection of Framing Systems for Building Cladding Components at Design Wind Loads

    Aluminum Association Manual

    AluminumDesignManual


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 91.100.50 (Binders. Sealing materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 31200000(Adhesives and sealants)


    DOI: 10.1520/C1401-09A

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