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Significance and Use
DOE Order 5480.11 and ANSI N13.30 require that internal dose assessments be made as part of the bioassay program for nuclear facility workers. For indirect bioassay of uranium workers, the uranium isotopes must be measured along with the total uranium in urine samples. The RMDA for each uranium isotope is 0.1 pCi/L.
This method is applicable for measuring 235U and 238U at the RMDA. Because of extremely low mass concentration (because of the high specific activity), 234U cannot be measured without additional sample preconcentration.
Note 2—Column chromatography separations and concentration of 234U using manual or flow-injection preconcentration followed by ICP-MS isotopic determination are described in Test Methods C1310 and C1345. These methods focus on environmental soil sample analysis, but with some development, may be applicable to digested urine samples. The 234U concentration can be calculated based on an enrichment gradient for workers in uranium enrichment plants, and internal dose assessments can be made.
Note 3—Use of high resolution ICP-MS may also be used to obtain lower detection limits.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration of uranium-235 and uranium-238 in urine using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. This test method can be used to support uranium facility bioassay programs.
1.2 This method detection limits for 235U and 238U are 6 ng/L. To meet the requirements of ANSI N13.30, the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of each radionuclide measured must be at least 0.1 pCi/L (0.0037 Bq/L). The MDA translates to 47 ng/L for 235U and 300 ng/L for 238U. Uranium– 234 cannot be determined at the MDA with this test method because of its low mass concentration level equivalent to 0.1 pCi/L.
1.3 The digestion and anion separation of urine may not be necessary when uranium concentrations of more than 100 ng/L are present.
1.4 Units—The values stated in picoCurie per liter units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Note 1—Warning: The ICP-MS is a source of intense ultraviolet radiation from the radio frequency induced plasma. Protection from radio frequency radiation and UV radiation is provided by the instrument under normal operation.
Note 1—Warning: The ICP-MS is a source of intense ultraviolet radiation from the radio frequency induced plasma. Protection from radio frequency radiation and UV radiation is provided by the instrument under normal operation.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C859 Terminology Relating to Nuclear Materials
C1310 Test Method for Determining Radionuclides in Soils by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Using Flow Injection Preconcentration
C1345 Test Method for Analysis of Total and Isotopic Uranium and Total Thorium in Soils by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
Other DocumentsDOEOrder5480.11 Radiological Measurements Quality
ICS Number Code 11.100 (Laboratory medicine)
UNSPSC Code 15131500(Nuclear fuel)
ASTM C1379-10, Standard Test Method for Analysis of Urine for Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 Isotopes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010, www.astm.orgBack to Top