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Significance and Use
4.2 Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites generally characterized by crystalline matrices and ceramic fiber reinforcements are candidate materials for structural applications requiring high degrees of wear and corrosion resistance, and elevated-temperature inherent damage tolerance (that is, toughness). In addition, continuous fiber-reinforced glass (amorphous) matrix composites are candidate materials for similar but possibly less-demanding applications. Although flexural test methods are commonly used to evaluate strengths of monolithic advanced ceramics, the non-uniform stress distribution of the flexure test specimen in addition to dissimilar mechanical behavior in tension and compression for CFCCs leads to ambiguity of interpretation of strength results obtained from flexure tests for CFCCs. Uniaxially-loaded tensile-strength tests provide information on mechanical behavior and strength for a uniformly stressed material.
4.3 Unlike monolithic advanced ceramics that fracture catastrophically from a single dominant flaw, CFCCs generally experience ′graceful' (that is, non-catastrophic, ductile-like stress-strain behavior) fracture from a cumulative damage process. Therefore, the volume of material subjected to a uniform tensile stress for a single uniaxially-loaded tensile test may not be as significant a factor in determining the ultimate strengths of CFCCs. However, the need to test a statistically significant number of tensile test specimens is not obviated. Therefore, because of the probabilistic nature of the strengths of the brittle fibers and matrices of CFCCs, a sufficient number of test specimens at each testing condition is required for statistical analysis and design. Studies to determine the influence of test specimen volume or surface area on strength distributions for CFCCs have not been completed. It should be noted that tensile strengths obtained using different recommended tensile test specimen geometries with different volumes of material in the gage sections may be different due to these volume differences.
4.4 Tensile tests provide information on the strength and deformation of materials under uniaxial tensile stresses. Uniform stress states are required to effectively evaluate any non-linear stress-strain behavior that may develop as the result of cumulative damage processes (for example, matrix cracking, matrix/fiber debonding, fiber fracture, delamination, and so forth) that may be influenced by testing mode, testing rate, effects of processing or combinations of constituent materials, environmental influences, or elevated temperatures. Some of these effects may be consequences of stress corrosion or sub critical (slow) crack growth that can be minimized by testing at sufficiently rapid rates as outlined in this test method.
4.5 The results of tensile tests of test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particular material or selected portions of a part, or both, may not totally represent the strength and deformation properties of the entire, full-size end product or its in-service behavior in different environments or various elevated temperatures.
4.6 For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized tensile test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the material from which they were taken for the particular primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments.
4.7 The tensile behavior and strength of a CFCC are dependent on its inherent resistance to fracture, the presence of flaws, or damage accumulation processes, or both. Analysis of fracture surfaces and fractography, though beyond the scope of this test method, is recommended.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of tensile strength including stress-strain behavior under monotonic uniaxial loading of continuous fiber-reinforced advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures. This test method addresses, but is not restricted to, various suggested test specimen geometries as listed in the appendix. In addition, test specimen fabrication methods, testing modes (force, displacement, or strain control), testing rates (force rate, stress rate, displacement rate, or strain rate), allowable bending, temperature control, temperature gradients, and data collection and reporting procedures are addressed. Tensile strength as used in this test method refers to the tensile strength obtained under monotonic uniaxial loading where monotonic refers to a continuous nonstop test rate with no reversals from test initiation to final fracture.
1.2 This test method applies primarily to advanced ceramic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement: uni-directional (1-D), bi-directional (2-D), and tri-directional (3-D) or other multi-directional reinforcements. In addition, this test method may also be used with glass (amorphous) matrix composites with 1-D, 2-D, 3-D and other multi-directional continuous fiber reinforcements. This test method does not directly address discontinuous fiber-reinforced, whisker-reinforced, or particulate-reinforced ceramics, although the test methods detailed here may be equally applicable to these composites.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Refer to Section 7 for specific precautions.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D6856/D6856M Guide for Testing Fabric-Reinforced Textile Composite Materials
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E21 Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E220 Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples By Comparison Techniques
E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)
E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)