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Significance and Use
4.2 Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are generally characterized by fine-grain sized (<50 μm) matrices and ceramic fiber reinforcements. In addition, continuous fiber-reinforced glass (amorphous) matrix composites can also be classified as CFCCs. Uniaxial-loaded compressive strength tests provide information on mechanical behavior and strength for a uniformly stressed CFCC.
4.3 Generally, ceramic and ceramic matrix composites have greater resistance to compressive forces than tensile forces. Ideally, ceramics should be compressively stressed in use, although engineering applications may frequently introduce tensile stresses in the component. Nonetheless, compressive behavior is an important aspect of mechanical properties and performance. The compressive strength of ceramic and ceramic composites may not be deterministic Therefore, test a sufficient number of test specimens to gain an insight into strength distributions.
4.4 Compression tests provide information on the strength and deformation of materials under uniaxial compressive stresses. Uniform stress states are required to effectively evaluate any nonlinear stress-strain behavior that may develop as the result of cumulative damage processes (for example, matrix cracking, matrix/fiber debonding, fiber fracture, delamination, etc.) that may be influenced by testing mode, testing rate, effects of processing or combination of constituent materials, or environmental influences. Some of these effects may be consequences of stress corrosion or sub-critical (slow) crack growth which can be minimized by testing at sufficiently rapid rates as outlined in this test method.
4.5 The results of compression tests of test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particulate material or selected portions of a part, or both, may not totally represent the strength and deformation properties of the entire, full-size product or its in-service behavior in different environments.
4.6 For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized compressive test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the material from which they were taken for given primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments.
4.7 The compressive behavior and strength of a CFCC are dependent on, and directly related to, the material. Analysis of fracture surfaces and fractography, though beyond the scope of this test method, are recommended.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of compressive strength including stress-strain behavior under monotonic uniaxial loading of continuous fiber-reinforced advanced ceramics at ambient temperatures. This test method addresses, but is not restricted to, various suggested test specimen geometries as listed in the appendix. In addition, test specimen fabrication methods, testing modes (force, displacement, or strain control), testing rates (force rate, stress rate, displacement rate, or strain rate), allowable bending, and data collection and reporting procedures are addressed. Compressive strength as used in this test method refers to the compressive strength obtained under monotonic uniaxial loading where monotonic refers to a continuous nonstop test rate with no reversals from test initiation to final fracture.
1.2 This test method applies primarily to advanced ceramic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement: uni-directional (1–D), bi-directional (2–D), and tri-directional (3–D) or other multi-directional reinforcements. In addition, this test method may also be used with glass (amorphous) matrix composites with 1–D, 2–D, 3–D, and other multi-directional continuous fiber reinforcements. This test method does not directly address discontinuous fiber-reinforced, whisker-reinforced, or particulate-reinforced ceramics, although the test methods detailed here may be equally applicable to these composites.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard and are in accordance with SI 10-02 IEEE/ASTM SI 10 .
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Refer to Section 7 for specific precautions.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
D695 Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics
D3379 Test Method for Tensile Strength and Youngs Modulus for High-Modulus Single-Filament Materials
D3410/D3410M Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Loading
D3479/D3479M Test Method for Tension-Tension Fatigue of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D6856 Guide for Testing Fabric-Reinforced Textile Composite Materials
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)
E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)