Significance and Use
This test method can be used to measure the release of a component from a cylindrical solidified waste form into water at the reference temperature of 20°C and at elevated temperatures that accelerate the rate and extent of leaching relative to the values measured at 20°C.
This test method can be used to:
Compare releases of waste components from various types of solidification agents and formulations.
Determine the diffusion coefficients for the release of waste components from waste forms at a specific temperature.
Promote greater extents of reaction than can be achieved under expected service conditions within a laboratory time frame to provide greater confidence in modeled diffusive releases.
Determine the temperature dependence of diffusive release.
Fitting the experimental results with a mechanistic model allows diffusive releases to be extrapolated to long times and to full-scale waste forms under the following constraints:
Results of this test method address an intrinsic property of a material and should not be presumed to represent releases in specific disposal environments. Tests can be conducted under conditions that represent a specific disposal environment (for example, by using a representative groundwater) to determine an effective diffusion coefficient for those conditions.
Projections of releases over long times requires that the waste form matrix remain stable, which may be demonstrated by the behavior of the specimen in ALTs at elevated temperatures.
Extrapolations in time and scale are limited to values that correspond to the maximum CFL value obtained in an accelerated test.
The mechanism must be the same at all temperatures used in the extrapolation. The same model that describes the results of tests conducted at elevated temperatures must also describe the results of tests run at the reference temperature of 20°C.
1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test.
1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1).
1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose.
1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can be identified through modeling, although further testing and analyses are required to determine the cause of partitioning (for example, if it occurs during production of the material or as a result of leaching).
1.2 The method is a modification of other semi-dynamic tests such as the IAEA test (1) and the ANS 16.1 Leach Test wherein elevated temperatures are used to accelerate diffusive release to an extent that would only be reached after very long times at lower temperatures. This approach provides a mechanistic basis for calculating diffusive releases at repository-relevant temperatures over long times, provided that the leaching mechanism does not change with temperature.
1.2.1 Tests can be conducted at elevated temperatures to accelerate diffusive release and provide a mechanistic basis for calculating diffusive releases that would occur at lower temperatures over long times. Tests conducted at high temperatures allow the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient to be determined. They also demonstrate that the diffusion mechanism is rate-limiting through the measured extent of diffusive release.
1.2.2 Releases at any temperature can be projected up to the highest cumulative fractional release value that has been measured for that material (at any temperature), provided that the mechanism does not change. The mechanism is considered to remain unchanged over a range of temperatures if the diffusion coefficients show Arrhenius behavior over that range.
Note 1—A computer program in which the test results are evaluated using three diffusion models is briefly described in Annex A1 and in the Accelerated Leach Test Method and User's Guide for the “ALT” Computer Program (2). The data are fit with model equations for diffusion from a semi-infinite solid, diffusion from a finite cylinder, and diffusion with partitioning of the species of interest to determine effective diffusion coefficients and quantify the goodness of fit. The User’s Guide contains several typographical errors; these are identified in Annex A1.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1220 Test Method for Static Leaching of Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
ANSI16.1 Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-Term Test Procedure Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
accelerated; diffusion; leach; waste; Accelerated leach test; Computer programs; Diffusive/fractional leaching; Leachates/leaching; Models/modeling--environmental; Nuclear scrap and waste materials; Solidified waste; Waste materials/processing/analysis ;
ICS Number Code 13.030.10 (Solid wastes)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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