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Significance and Use
Alkali-silica reaction is a chemical interaction between some siliceous constituents of concrete aggregates and hydroxyl ions (1). The concentration of hydroxyl ion within the concrete is predominantly controlled by the concentration of sodium and potassium (2).
This test method is intended to evaluate the potential of an aggregate or combination of an aggregate with pozzolan or slag to expand deleteriously due to any form of alkali-silica reactivity (3,4).
When testing an aggregate with pozzolan or slag, the results are used to establish minimum amounts of the specific pozzolan or slag needed to prevent deleterious expansion. Pozzolan or slag from a specific source can be tested individually or in combination with pozzolan or slag from other sources.
When selecting a sample or deciding on the number of samples for test, it is important to recognize the variability in lithology of material from a given source, whether a deposit of sand, gravel, or a rock formation of any origin. For specific advice, see Guide C 295
This test method is intended for evaluating the behavior of aggregates in portland cement concrete with an alkali (alkali metal oxide) content of 5.25 kg/m3 or in concrete containing pozzolan or slag with an alkali content proportionally reduced from 5.25 kg/m3 Na2O equivalent by the amount of pozzolan or slag replacing portland cement. This test method assesses the potential for deleterious expansion of concrete caused by alkali-silica reaction, of either coarse or fine aggregates, from tests performed under prescribed laboratory curing conditions that will probably differ from field conditions. Thus, actual field performance will not be duplicated due to differences in concrete alkali content, wetting and drying, temperature, other factors, or combinations of these (5).
Results of tests conducted on an aggregate as described herein should form a part of the basis for a decision as to whether precautions should be taken against excessive expansion due to alkali-silica reaction. Results of tests conducted on combinations of an aggregate with pozzolans or slag should form a part of the basis for a decision as to whether the specific pozzolan or slag, when used in the amount tested, was effective in preventing excessive expansion. These decisions should be made before a particular aggregate is used in concrete construction. Criteria to determine the potential deleteriousness of expansions measured in this test are given in Appendix X1.
When the expansions in this test method are greater than the limit shown in X1.2, the aggregate or combination of aggregate with the tested amount of pozzolan or slag is potentially alkali-reactive. Supplemental information should be developed to confirm that the expansion is actually due to alkali-silica reaction. Petrographic examination of the concrete prisms should be conducted after the test using Practice C 856
If the supplemental tests show that a given aggregate is potentially deleteriously reactive, additional studies may be appropriate to evaluate preventive measures in order to allow safe use of the aggregate. Preventive measures are mentioned in the Appendix to Specification C 33
This test method does not address the general suitability of pozzolans or slag for use in concrete. These materials should comply with Specification C 618
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the susceptibility of an aggregate or combination of an aggregate with pozzolan or slag for participation in expansive alkali-silica reaction by measurement of length change of concrete prisms.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (Warning—Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure. )
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. When combined standards are cited, the selection of measurement system is at the user's discretion subject to the requirements of the referenced standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C29/C29M Test Method for Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate
C33 Specification for Concrete Aggregates
C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
C138/C138M Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete
C143/C143M Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
C150 Specification for Portland Cement
C157/C157M Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete
C192/C192M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory
C227 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method)
C289 Test Method for Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Aggregates (Chemical Method)
C294 Descriptive Nomenclature for Constituents of Concrete Aggregates
C295 Guide for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete
C490 Practice for Use of Apparatus for the Determination of Length Change of Hardened Cement Paste, Mortar, and Concrete
C494/C494M Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
C511 Specification for Mixing Rooms, Moist Cabinets, Moist Rooms, and Water Storage Tanks Used in the Testing of Hydraulic Cements and Concretes
C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete
C702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
C856 Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete
C989 Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and Mortars
C1240 Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures
C1260 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates (Mortar-Bar Method)
D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
CSA StandardsCSAA23.2-28A Standard Practice for Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate the Effectiveness of Supplementary Cementing Materials and Lithium-Based Admixtures to Prevent Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete
ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)
UNSPSC Code 30111500(Concrete and mortars)