Active Standard ASTM C1220 | Developed by Subcommittee: C26.07
Book of Standards Volume: 12.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This test method can be used to provide a measure of the reactivity of a material in a dilute solution in which the test response is dominated by the dissolution or leaching of the test specimen. It can be used to compare the dissolution or leaching behaviors of candidate radioactive waste forms and to study the reactions during static exposure to dilute solutions in which solution feed-back effects can be maintained negligible, depending on the test conditions.
The test is suitable for application to natural minerals, simulated waste form materials, and radioactive waste form material specimens.
Data from this test may form part of the larger body of data that is necessary in the logical approach to long-term prediction of waste form behavior, as described in Practice C1174. In particular, measured solution concentrations and characterizations of altered surfaces may be used in the validation of geochemical modeling codes.
This test method excludes the use of crushed or powdered specimens and organic materials.
Several reference test parameter values and reference leachant solutions are specified to facilitate the comparison of results of tests conducted with different materials and at different laboratories. However, other test parameter values and leachant solution compositions can be used to characterize the specimen reactivity.
Tests can be conducted with different leachant compositions to simulate groundwaters, buffer the leachate pH as the specimen dissolves, or measure the common ion effect of particular solutes.
Tests can be conducted to measure the effects of various test parameter values on the specimen response, including time, temperature, and S/V ratio. Tests conducted for different durations and at various temperatures provide insight into the reaction kinetics. Tests conducted at different S/V ratio provide insight into chemical affinity (solution feed-back effects) and the approach to saturation.
Either aerated or deaerated solutions may be used in this test method except when testing highly radioactive specimens. Deaerated solutions are mandatory in tests conducted with highly radioactive specimens to minimize the effects of nitrogen radiolysis. Preparation of deaerated leachants is addressed in 7.2.2.
Control of the oxygen fugacity is not part of this test method. Such control and measurement may be required for specific uses of test data but are beyond the scope of this test method.
Tests can be conducted using vessels compatible with the test specimen, leachant, and test environment. Corrosion resistant materials shall be used for tests with corrosive brines. Radiation-resistant materials shall be used for tests in radiation fields wherein the accumulated absorbed dose will exceed 104 rad (see Note 1).
Note 1—Additional requirements to the test method apply when using a highly radioactive waste form specimen, as indicated in the procedure.
1.1 This test method provides a measure of the chemical durability of a simulated or radioactive monolithic waste form, such as a glass, ceramic, cement (grout), or cermet, in a test solution at temperatures <100°C under low specimen surface- area-to-leachant volume (S/V) ratio conditions.
1.2 This test method can be used to characterize the dissolution or leaching behaviors of various simulated or radioactive waste forms in various leachants under the specific conditions of the test based on analysis of the test solution. Data from this test are used to calculate normalized elemental mass loss values from specimens exposed to aqueous solutions at temperatures <100°C.
1.3 The test is conducted under static conditions in a constant solution volume and at a constant temperature. The reactivity of the test specimen is determined from the amounts of components released and accumulated in the solution over the test duration. A wide range of test conditions can be used to study material behavior, including various leachant composition, specimen surface area-to-leachant volume ratios, temperatures, and test durations.
1.4 Three leachant compositions and four reference test matrices of test conditions are recommended to characterize materials behavior and facilitate interlaboratory comparisons of tests results.
1.5 Specimen surfaces may become altered during this test. Although not part of the test method, it is recommended that these altered surface regions be examined to characterize chemical and physical changes due to the reaction of waste forms during static exposure to solutions.
1.6 This test method is not recommended for evaluating metallic materials, the degradation of which includes oxidation reactions that are not controlled by this test method.
1.7 This test method must be performed in accordance with all applicable quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data.
1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For a specific hazard statement, see 7.3.2.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1109 Practice for Analysis of Aqueous Leachates from Nuclear Waste Materials Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
C1174 Practice for Prediction of the Long-Term Behavior of Materials, Including Waste Forms, Used in Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water
EPA DocumentSW-846A Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods
ICS Number Code 13.280 (Radiation protection); 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)
UNSPSC Code 76131500(Nuclear waste treatment)