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Significance and Use
5.1 The procedures in this practice support the determination of the burn hazard potential for a heated surface. These procedures provide an estimate of the maximum skin contact temperature and must be used in conjunction with Guide C1055 to evaluate the surface hazard potential.
5.2 The two procedures outlined herein are both based upon the same heat transfer principles. Method A uses a mathematical model to predict the contact temperature, while Method B uses a plastic rubber probe having similar heat transfer characteristics to the human finger to “measure” the contact temperature on real systems.
5.3 These procedures serve as an estimate for the skin contact temperatures which might occur for the “average” individual. Unusual conditions of exposure, incorrect design assumptions, subject health conditions, or unforeseen operating conditions may negate the validity of the estimations.
5.4 These procedures are limited to direct contact exposure only. Conditions of personal exposure to periods of high ambient temperatures, direct flame exposure, or high radiant fluxes may cause human injury in periods other than determined herein. Evaluation of exposures other than direct contact are beyond the scope of this practice.
5.5 Cold Surface Exposure—No consensus criteria exists for the destruction of skin cells by freezing. If, at some future time, such criteria are developed, extrapolation of the techniques presented here will serve as a basis for cold surface exposure evaluation.
1.1 This practice covers a procedure for evaluating the skin contact temperature for heated surfaces. Two complimentary procedures are presented. The first is a purely mathematical approximation that can be used during design or for worst case evaluation. The second method describes the thermesthesiometer, an instrument that analogues the human sensory mechanism and can be used only on operating systems.
1.2 A bibliography of human burn evaluation studies and surface hazard measurement is provided in the References at the end of Guide C1055. Thermesthesiometer and mathematical modeling references are provided in the References at the end of this practice (1-5).2
1.3 This practice addresses the skin contact temperature determination for passive heated surfaces only. The analysis procedures contained herein are not applicable to chemical, electrical, or other similar hazards that provide a heat generation source at the location of contact.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C680 Practice for Estimate of the Heat Gain or Loss and the Surface Temperatures of Insulated Flat, Cylindrical, and Spherical Systems by Use of Computer Programs
C1055 Guide for Heated System Surface Conditions that Produce Contact Burn Injuries
ICS Number Code 13.100 (Occupational safety. Industrial hygiene)
UNSPSC Code 42201714(Thesiometers)
ASTM C1057-12, Standard Practice for Determination of Skin Contact Temperature from Heated Surfaces Using a Mathematical Model and Thermesthesiometer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, www.astm.orgBack to Top