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This specification establishes the requirements for electrodeposited palladium-nickel (Pd-Ni) coatings for engineering applications. Composite coatings consisting of palladium-nickel and a thin gold over-plate for applications involving electrical contacts are also covered. The classification system for the coatings covered here shall be specified by the basis metal, the thickness of the underplating, the composition type and thickness class of the palladium-nickel coating, and the grade of the gold overplating. Coatings should be sampled, tested, and conform to specified requirements as to purity, appearance, thickness, composition, adhesion, ductility, and integrity (including gross defects, mechanical damage, porosity, and microcracks). Alloy composition shall be examined either by wet method, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Auger or electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), or wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Coating adhesion shall be analyzed either by bend, heat, or cutting test.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 Composition—This specification covers requirements for electrodeposited palladium-nickel coatings containing between 70 and 95 mass % of palladium metal. Composite coatings consisting of palladium-nickel and a thin gold overplate for applications involving electrical contacts are also covered.
1.2 Properties—Palladium is the lightest and least noble of the platinum group metals. Palladium-nickel is a solid solution alloy of palladium and nickel. Electroplated palladium-nickel alloys have a density between 10 and 11.5, which is substantially less than electroplated gold (17.0 to 19.3) and comparable to electroplated pure palladium (10.5 to 11.8). This yields a greater volume or thickness of coating per unit mass and, consequently, some saving of metal weight. The hardness range of electrodeposited palladium-nickel compares favorably with electroplated noble metals and their alloys (1, 2).2
Approximate Hardness (HK25)
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
B183 Practice for Preparation of Low-Carbon Steel for Electroplating
B242 Guide for Preparation of High-Carbon Steel for Electroplating
B254 Practice for Preparation of and Electroplating on Stainless Steel
B281 Practice for Preparation of Copper and Copper-Base Alloys for Electroplating and Conversion Coatings
B322 Guide for Cleaning Metals Prior to Electroplating
B343 Practice for Preparation of Nickel for Electroplating with Nickel
B374 Terminology Relating to Electroplating
B481 Practice for Preparation of Titanium and Titanium Alloys for Electroplating
B482 Practice for Preparation of Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys for Electroplating
B487 Test Method for Measurement of Metal and Oxide Coating Thickness by Microscopical Examination of Cross Section
B488 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Gold for Engineering Uses
B489 Practice for Bend Test for Ductility of Electrodeposited and Autocatalytically Deposited Metal Coatings on Metals
B507 Practice for Design of Articles to Be Electroplated on Racks
B542 Terminology Relating to Electrical Contacts and Their Use
B558 Practice for Preparation of Nickel Alloys for Electroplating
B568 Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thickness by X-Ray Spectrometry
B571 Practice for Qualitative Adhesion Testing of Metallic Coatings
B602 Test Method for Attribute Sampling of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
B697 Guide for Selection of Sampling Plans for Inspection of Electrodeposited Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
B741 Test Method for Porosity In Gold Coatings On Metal Substrates By Paper Electrography
B748 Test Method for Measurement of Thickness of Metallic Coatings by Measurement of Cross Section with a Scanning Electron Microscope
B762 Test Method of Variables Sampling of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
B765 Guide for Selection of Porosity and Gross Defect Tests for Electrodeposits and Related Metallic Coatings
B798 Test Method for Porosity in Gold or Palladium Coatings on Metal Substrates by Gel-Bulk Electrography
B799 Test Method for Porosity in Gold and Palladium Coatings by Sulfurous Acid/Sulfur-Dioxide Vapor
B809 Test Method for Porosity in Metallic Coatings by Humid Sulfur Vapor (Flowers-of-Sulfur)
B827 Practice for Conducting Mixed Flowing Gas (MFG) Environmental Tests
B845 Guide for Mixed Flowing Gas (MFG) Tests for Electrical Contacts
B849 Specification for Pre-Treatments of Iron or Steel for Reducing Risk of Hydrogen Embrittlement
B850 Guide for Post-Coating Treatments of Steel for Reducing the Risk of Hydrogen Embrittlement
D1125 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of Water
D3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging
ICS Number Code 25.220.40 (Metallic coatings)