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    ASTM B848 - 15

    Standard Specification for Powder Forged (PF) Ferrous Materials

    Active Standard ASTM B848 | Developed by Subcommittee: B09.11

    Book of Standards Volume: 02.05


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    Abstract

    This specification covers the powder forged ferrous materials fabricated by hot densification of atomized prealloyed or iron powders and intended for use as structural parts. The strcutural parts shall be made by hot forging of powder metallurgy preforms in confined dies with or without subsequent heat treatment. The materials shall conform to the required chemical composition for nickel, molybdenum, manganese, copper, chromium, sulfur, silicon, phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen. The mechanical properties such as yield strength, elongation, Rockwell hardness, impact energy, compressive yield strength and fatigue shal be determined using the tensile test method, Charpy V-notch impact energy test method, and hardness test method. The materials shall conform to the required surface finger oxide penetration, interparticle oxide networks, decarburization depth, and nonmetallic inclusion level.

    This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This specification covers powder forged ferrous materials fabricated by hot densification of atomized prealloyed or iron powders and intended for use as structural parts.

    1.2 This specification covers powder forged parts made from the following materials:

    1.2.1 Compositions: 

    1.2.1.1 PF-10XX Carbon Steel (produced from atomized iron powder and graphite powder),

    1.2.1.2 PF-10CXX Copper-Carbon Steel (produced from atomized iron powder, copper and graphite powders),

    1.2.1.3 PF-11XX Carbon Steel with manganese sulfide for enhanced machinability (produced from atomized iron powder, manganese sulfide, and graphite powders),

    1.2.1.4 PF-11CXX, PF-1130CXX, and PF-1135CXX Copper-Carbon Steels with manganese sulfide for enhanced machinability (produced from atomized iron powder, copper, manganese sulfide, and graphite powders),

    1.2.1.5 PF-42XX Nickel-Molybdenum Steel (produced from prealloyed atomized iron-nickel-molybdenum powder and graphite powder),

    1.2.1.6 PF-46XX Nickel-Molybdenum Steel (produced from prealloyed atomized iron-nickel-molybdenum powder and graphite powder),

    1.2.1.7 PF-44XX Molybdenum Steel (produced from prealloyed atomized iron-molybdenum powder and graphite powder), and

    1.2.1.8 PF-49XX Molybdenum Steel (produced from prealloyed atomized iron-molybdenum powder and graphite powder).

    Note 1: Alloy composition designations are modifications of the AISI-SAE nomenclature. For example: 10CXX designates a plain carbon steel containing copper and XX amount of carbon. Compositional limits of alloy and impurity elements may be different from the AISI-SAE limits. Chemical composition limits are specified in Section 6.

    Note 2: XX designates the forged carbon content, in hundredths of a percent, that is specified by the purchaser for the application. For a given specified carbon content, the permissible limits shall be as specified in 6.2.

    Note 3: The old acronym for powder forging P/F has been replaced by PF throughout the document. The change in the prefix for the material designations is just to match the currently approved acronym for powder forging. No change has been made to the material specification and performance characteristics for the various powder forged materials.

    1.2.2 Grades: 

    1.2.2.1 Grade A—Density equivalent to a maximum of 0.5 % porosity. The minimum density of those sections of the powder forged part so designated by the applicable part drawing shall not be less than the value specified in Table 1.

    (A) Quench-hardening and tempering will reduce the density values. Normalized samples may have lower density values then fully annealed materials.
    (B) For the purpose of determining conformance with this specification, measured values shall be rounded “to the nearest unit” in the last right-hand digit used in expressing the specification limit, in accordance with the rounding-off method of Practice E29.
    (C) Based on the method described in Smith, D. W., “Calculation of the Pore-Free Density of PM Steels: Role of Microstructure and Composition,” The International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, Vol 28, No. 3, 1992, p. 259. Calculations based on 350 ppm max oxygen content and all oxygen combined as 3MnO · Al2O3 · 3SiO 2.
    (D) The method described by Smith is not considered applicable to steels with admixed copper additions. Pore-free densities for these materials were determined by experiment.

    1.2.2.2 Grade B—Density equivalent to a maximum of 1.5 % porosity. The minimum density of those sections of the powder forged part so designated by the applicable part drawing shall not be less than the value specified in Table 1.

    1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A255 Test Methods for Determining Hardenability of Steel

    B795 Test Method for Determining the Percentage of Alloyed or Unalloyed Iron Contamination Present in Powder Forged (PF) Steel Materials

    B796 Test Method for Nonmetallic Inclusion Content of Powders Intended for Powder Forging (PF) Applications

    B797 Test Method for Surface Finger Oxide Penetration Depth and Presence of Interparticle Oxide Networks in Powder Forged (P/F) Steel Parts

    B934 Test Method for Effective Case Depth of Ferrous Powder Metallurgy (PM) Parts Using Microindentation Hardness Measurements

    E3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens

    E8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials

    E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials

    E23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E350 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Carbon Steel, Low-Alloy Steel, Silicon Electrical Steel, Ingot Iron, and Wrought Iron

    E415 Test Method for Atomic Emission Vacuum Spectrometric Analysis of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel

    E562 Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count

    E1019 Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Steel, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys by Various Combustion and Fusion Techniques

    E1077 Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens

    MPIF Standard

    MPIF 35 Materials Standards for PF Steel Parts


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.160 (Powder metallurgy)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 31133700(Powdered metals and metal alloys)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/B0848-15

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    Citation Format

    ASTM B848-15, Standard Specification for Powder Forged (PF) Ferrous Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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