ASTM B312 - 14

    Standard Test Method for Green Strength of Specimens Compacted from Metal Powders

    Active Standard ASTM B312 | Developed by Subcommittee: B09.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 02.05


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The green strength value determined under the conditions specified by this test method is influenced by the characteristics of the powder, how it compacts under the specified conditions (i.e., the particle to particle bonding that exists following compacting), and the lubrication system used.

    5.2 Knowledge of the green strength value is useful to the production, characterization and utilization of metal powders in the manufacture of PM structural parts and bearings.

    5.3 The test for green strength of a compacted metal powder can be used to:

    5.3.1 Relate the resistance of a pressed compact to breakage or damage due to handling.

    5.3.2 Compare the quality of a metal powder or powder mixture from lot to lot.

    5.3.3 Determine the effect of the addition of a lubricant or other powders to a base powder.

    5.3.4 Evaluate powder mixing or blending variables.

    5.4  Factors that are known to influence the green strength of a metal powder are particle shape, particle size distribution and compressibility of the metal powder.

    5.5 The amount and type of lubricant or other additives and the mixing procedures have a strong effect on the green strength of specimens produced from metal powder mixtures.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This standard covers a test method that may be used to measure the transverse rupture strength of a compacted but unsintered (green) test specimen produced from lubricated or unlubricated metal powders or powder mixtures.

    1.2 Green strength is measured by a quantitative laboratory procedure in which the fracture strength is calculated from the force required to break an unsintered test specimen supported as a simple beam while subjected to a uniformly increasing three-point transverse load under controlled conditions.

    1.3 This test method is a companion standard to Test Method B528 that covers the measurement of the transverse rupture strength of sintered PM test specimens.

    1.4 With the exception of the values for density and the mass used to determine density, for which the use of the gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) and gram (g) units is the longstanding industry practice, the values in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    B215 Practices for Sampling Metal Powders

    B243 Terminology of Powder Metallurgy

    B528 Test Method for Transverse Rupture Strength of Powder Metallurgy (PM) Specimens

    B925 Practices for Production and Preparation of Powder Metallurgy (PM) Test Specimens

    B962 Test Methods for Density of Compacted or Sintered Powder Metallurgy (PM) Products Using Archimedes Principle

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.160 (Powder metallurgy)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/B0312-14

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM B312-14, Standard Test Method for Green Strength of Specimens Compacted from Metal Powders, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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