These test methods cover the detection of detrimental intermetallic phase in duplex austenitic/ferritic stainless steel to the extent that toughness and corrosion resistance is affected significantly. These test methods will not necessarily detect losses of toughness or corrosion resistance attributable to other causes. Test method A-sodium hydroxide etch test, test method B-Charpy impact test, and test method C-ferric chloride corrosion test shall be made for classification of structures of duplex stainless steels.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 The purpose of these test methods is to allow detection of the presence of intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steels to the extent that toughness or corrosion resistance is affected significantly. These test methods will not necessarily detect losses of toughness or corrosion resistance attributable to other causes.
1.2 Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steels are susceptible to the formation of intermetallic compounds during exposures in the temperature range from approximately 600 to 1750°F (320 to 955°C). The speed of these precipitation reactions is a function of composition and thermal or thermomechanical history of each individual piece. The presence of these phases is detrimental to toughness and corrosion resistance.
1.3 Correct heat treatment of duplex stainless steels can eliminate these detrimental phases. Rapid cooling of the product provides the maximum resistance to formation of detrimental phases by subsequent thermal exposures.
1.4 Compliance with the chemical and mechanical requirements for the applicable product specification does not necessarily indicate the absence of detrimental phases in the product.
1.5 These test methods include the following:
1.5.1 Test Method A—Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test for Classification of Etch Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 3-7).
1.5.2 Test Method B—Charpy Impact Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 8-13).
1.5.3 Test Method C—Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 14-20).
1.6 The presence of detrimental intermetallic phases is readily detected in all three tests, provided that a sample of appropriate location and orientation is selected. Because the occurrence of intermetallic phases is a function of temperature and cooling rate, it is essential that the tests be applied to the region of the material experiencing the conditions most likely to promote the formation of an intermetallic phase. In the case of common heat treatment, this region will be that which cooled most slowly. Except for rapidly cooled material, it may be necessary to sample from a location determined to be the most slowly cooled for the material piece to be characterized.
1.7 The tests do not determine the precise nature of the detrimental phase but rather the presence or absence of an intermetallic phase to the extent that it is detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of the material.
1.8 Examples of the correlation of thermal exposures, the occurrence of intermetallic phases, and the degradation of toughness and corrosion resistance are given in Appendix X1 and Appendix X2.
1.9 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
3.1 The sodium hydroxide etch test may be used for the acceptance of material but not for rejection. This test method may be used with other evaluation tests to provide a rapid method for identifying those specimens that are free of detrimental intermetallic phases as measured in these other tests.
3.2 The sodium hydroxide etch test may be used to screen specimens intended for testing in Test Method B, Charpy Impact Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels, and in Test Method C, Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels.
3.3 Reference photomicrographs are provided to show classifications of etch structures of a particular stainless steel type that are equivalent to acceptable or to possibly unacceptable performance for each practice. When Test Method A is used as a screening test for Test Method B or Test Method C, specimens having acceptable etch structures need not be subjected to Test Method B or Test Method C.
3.4 Table 1 indicates the applicability and acceptance criteria for Test Method A. When Test Method A is specified as an acceptance test, specimens having other than acceptable etch structures may, at the option of the producer, be tested by Test Method B or Test Method C.
3.5 The steel shall be tested in the final solution heat treated condition or such other conditions as are agreed upon between the producer and the user.
TABLE 1 Applicability and Acceptance Criteria for
Test Method A
|S31803, S32205, S32750, S32550,|
S32520, J92205, J93404
|unaffected structure (Fig. 1, Fig. 2) ||possibly affected structure (Fig. 3, Fig. 4) |
|affected structure (Fig. 5, Fig. 6) |
|centerline structure (Fig. 7) |
8.1 This test method describes the procedure for conducting the Charpy impact test as a method of detecting the precipitation of detrimental intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steels. The presence or absence of an indication of intermetallic phase in this test is not necessarily a measure of performance of the material in service with regard to any property other than that measured directly. The Charpy procedure as here applied is different from that as commonly applied for the determination of toughness and should not be used when characterization of material toughness is the purpose of the testing.
8.2 The Charpy impact test may be used to evaluate mill and cast products, provided that it is possible to obtain a specimen of relevant location and geometry.
8.3 Table 2 indicates the applicability and acceptance criteria for Test Method B.
TABLE 2 Applicability and Acceptance Criteria for
Test Method B
|Grade ||Condition ||Test|
|base metal ||–40°F (–40°C)|| 40 ft-lb (54 J)A |
|heat-affected zone ||–40°F (–40°C)|| 40 ft-lb (54 J)A |
|weld metal ||–40°F (–40°C)|| 25 ft-lb (34 J)A |
|S32750||base metal||–40°F (–40°C)||B|
|J93404||base metal||–50°F (–46°C)|| 40 ft-lb (54 J)A |
A Energy for a full-size specimen. Required energy for a subsize specimen is reduced in direct proportion to the reduced area of the subsize specimen relative to that of the full-size specimen.
B The acceptable minimum impact energy shall be agreed upon by seller and purchaser.
14.1 This test method describes the procedure for conducting the ferric chloride corrosion test for detecting the presence of detrimental intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steels. The presence or absence of corrosion attack in this test is not necessarily a measure of the performance of the material in other corrosive environments; in particular, it does not provide a basis for predicting resistance to forms of corrosion not associated with the precipitation of intermetallic phases (see Note 4).
14.2 The ferric chloride corrosion test may be used to evaluate mill products, provided that it is possible to obtain a specimen of relevant location and geometry.
14.3 Table 3 indicates the applicability and acceptance criteria for Test Method C.
Note 4—Although this test method uses some equipment and procedures similar to those of Test Methods G 48, this test method should not be confused with Test Methods G 48. This test method does not determine the critical pitting temperature or test for the suitability for use in a particular environment. This test method is designed solely for detection of the precipitation of detrimental intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steels.
TABLE 3 Applicability and Acceptance Criteria for
Test Method C
Corrosion Rate Calculated
from Weight Loss
|base metal||25°C (77°F)||10 mdd|
| weld metal || 22°C (72°F) || 10 mdd |
|S32750||base metal||40°C (104°F)||10 mdd|
|S32550||base metal||40°C (104°F)||10 mdd|
|S32520||base metal||40°C (104°F)||10 mdd|
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
G48 Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution
duplex; intermetallic; stainless steels; Austenitic stainless steel; Charpy impact test; Detrimental intermetallic phase detection; Duplex stainless steel; Etch structures; Ferric chloride corrosion test; Ferritic stainless steel; Intermetallic phase detection; Sodium hydroxide etch test; Stainless steel; Wrought duplex stainless steel; stainless steels
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