Active Standard ASTM A320 / A320M | Developed by Subcommittee: A01.22
Book of Standards Volume: 01.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
This specification covers alloy steel bolting materials for pressure vessels, valves, flanges, and fittings for low-temperature service. Each alloy shall conform to the prescribed chemical composition requirements. The material, as represented by the tension specimens, shall conform to the requirements as to tensile properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and hardness. The material shall meet the prescribed impact energy absorption requirements and the recommended test temperature. Mechanical tests shall be conducted on the material, namely: impact testing, tension testing, and hardness testing.
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1.1 This specification covers alloy steel bolting for pressure vessels, valves, flanges, and fittings for low-temperature service. See Specification for the definition of bolting. The bars shall be hot-wrought and may be further processed by centerless grinding or by cold drawing. Austenitic stainless steel may be solution annealed or annealed and strain-hardened. When strain hardened austenitic stainless steel is ordered, the purchaser should take special care to ensure that Appendix X1 is thoroughly understood.
1.2 Several grades are covered, including both ferritic and austenitic steels designated L7, B8, etc. Selection will depend on design, service conditions, mechanical properties, and low-temperature characteristics. The mechanical requirements of Table 1 indicate the diameters for which the minimum mechanical properties apply to the various grades and classes, and Table 2 stipulates the requirements for Charpy impact energy absorption. The manufacturer should determine that the material can conform to these requirements before parts are manufactured. For example, when Grade L43 is specified to meet the Table 2 impact energy values at −150 °F [−101 °C], additional restrictions (such as procuring a steel with lower P and S contents than might normally be supplied) in the chemical composition for AISI 4340 are likely to be required.
Note 1—The committee formulating this specification has included several grades of material that have been rather extensively used for the present purpose. Other compositions will be considered for inclusion by the committee from time to time as the need becomes apparent. Users should note that hardenability of some of the grades mentioned may restrict the maximum size at which the required mechanical properties are obtainable.
1.4 Nuts for use with bolting are covered in Section 10 and the nut material shall be impact tested.
1.5 Supplementary Requirements are provided for use at the option of the purchaser. The supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified in the purchase order or contract.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A194/A194M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both
A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
A962/A962M Specification for Common Requirements for Bolting Intended for Use at Any Temperature from Cryogenic to the Creep Range
E566 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Sorting of Ferrous Metals
F436 Specification for Hardened Steel Washers
F606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets
ICS Number Code 21.060.01 (Fasteners in general); 77.080.20 (Steels)