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Significance and Use
This practice is used to provide steel phase transformation data required for use in numerical models for the prediction of microstructures, properties, and distortion during steel manufacturing, forging, casting, heat treatment, and welding. Alternatively, the practice provides end users of steel and fabricated steel products the phase transformation data required for selecting steel grades for a given application by determining the microstructure resulting from a prescribed thermal cycle.
There are available several computer models designed to predict the microstructures, mechanical properties, and distortion of steels as a function of thermal processing cycle. Their use is predicated on the availability of accurate and consistent thermal and transformation strain data. Strain, both thermal and transformation, developed during thermal cycling is the parameter used in predicting both microstructure and properties, and for estimating distortion. It should be noted that these models are undergoing continued development. This process is aimed, among other things, at establishing a direct link between discrete values of strain and specific microstructure constituents in steels. This practice describes a standardized method for measuring strain during a defined thermal cycle.
This practice is suitable for providing data for computer models used in the control of steel manufacturing, forging, casting, heat-treating, and welding processes. It is also useful in providing data for the prediction of microstructures and properties to assist in steel alloy selection for end-use applications.
This practice is suitable for providing the data needed for the construction of transformation diagrams that depict the microstructures developed during the thermal processing of steels as functions of time and temperature. Such diagrams provide a qualitative assessment of the effects of changes in thermal cycle on steel microstructure. Appendix X2 describes construction of these diagrams.
It should be recognized that thermal and transformation strains, which develop in steels during thermal cycling, are sensitive to chemical composition. Thus, anisotropy in chemical composition can result in variability in strain, and can affect the results of strain determinations, especially determination of volumetric strain. Strains determined during cooling are sensitive to the grain size of austenite, which is determined by the heating cycle. The most consistent results are obtained when austenite grain size is maintained between ASTM grain sizes of 5 to 8. Finally, the eutectoid carbon content is defined as 0.8 % for carbon steels. Additions of alloying elements can change this value, along with Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures. Heating cycles need to be employed, as described below, to ensure complete formation of austenite preceding strain measurements during cooling.
1.1 This practice covers the determination of hypoeutectoid steel phase transformation behavior by using high-speed dilatometry techniques for measuring linear dimensional change as a function of time and temperature, and reporting the results as linear strain in either a numerical or graphical format.
1.2 The practice is applicable to high-speed dilatometry equipment capable of programmable thermal profiles and with digital data storage and output capability.
1.3 This practice is applicable to the determination of steel phase transformation behavior under both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions.
1.4 This practice includes requirements for obtaining metallographic information to be used as a supplement to the dilatometry measurements.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens
E112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
E407 Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys
ICS Number Code 77.040.99 (Other methods of testing metals)
UNSPSC Code 11101704(Steel )