|Breakaway and In-Motion Tests Included in Sliding Windows and
To obtain less variation in test results of sliding window and
door systems, E 2068, Standard Test Method for Determination of Operating Force of
Sliding Windows and Doors, has been developed by ASTM Subcommittee
E06.51 on Component Performance of Windows, Curtain Walls, and
Doors, under Committee E06 on Performance of Buildings.
According to Rick Curkeet, chairman of the subcommittee task group
that developed E 2068, the test method applies to products with
opening/closing parts sliding or rolling in one plane, such as:
Single/double hung windows;
Horizontal sliding windows; and
Sliding or rolling-type patio doors.
The ASTM window and door operating force standard provides a
detailed set of procedures for measuring both the forces required
to initiate motion of the operating part of the product (a sash
or door panel), said Curkeet, chief engineer, Intertek Testing
Services, Warnock Hersey, Middleton, Wis.
The need for this method was recognized for years as many sliding
window and patio door specifications required measurement and
reporting of operating forces as a part of a broader performance
test program, he elaborated. While there was no standard practice,
most laboratories developed and used their own methods of making
these measurements. However, it became apparent that significant
variation in results was likely depending on each laboratorys
interpretation of what data was needed and how the test should
This issue became more critical over time as designs were made
tighter in response to the demand for more air-tight, energy efficient
construction, he continued. The use of more and better weatherstrip
in window and door designs tended to increase the force required
to open and close the product. In addition, there was recognition
that often two distinct operating force measurements were needed
to accurately convey how a particular product operated. Some products,
for example, require a relatively larger force to disengage the
movable sash from a weather-stripped frame pocket and a much lower
force to move the sash through the rest of its operating range.
Thus the standard includes both breakaway and an in-motion
operating force measurement procedures.
Curkeet said Test Method E 2068 recognizes well-known methods
of force measurementsforce-gauge and hand-applied pressure, as
well as dead weights, suitable for:
Laboratory product comparisons, qualifying products, or both
to meet window or door operating force specifications; and
Use in the field to determine the operating forces required
to open and close installed sliding windows and doors.
While the primary motivation for developing this standard was
as a tool in determining new product design compliance with industry
specifications, it was apparent that it would also have application
to installed products in the field, Curkeet said. The task group
recognized that the operating forces for these products would
be substantially affected by the quality of the product installation,
product age and maintenance and environmental conditions. This
led to the need to include discussion of these factors and reporting
requirements that would assure that relevant additional information
would be provided to interested parties that would help in making
appropriate conclusions regarding field measurements.
It is expected that many of the current ASTM test methods that
apply to fenestration products (under the jurisdiction of Subcommittee
E06.51) will include reference to E 2068 in their next revisions,
For further technical information, contact Rick Curkeet, Intertek Testing Services, Warnock Hersey, Middleton, Wis. (phone:
608/836-4400). Committee E06 meets April 1-4 in Phoenix, Ariz.
For meeting or membership details, contact Staff Manager Steve Mawn, ASTM (phone: 610/832-9726). //
Copyright 2001, ASTM