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9 peer-reviewed papers by key contributors:
offer a chronology of developments regarding the low-temperature rheological techniques and specifications that apply to the low-temperature cranking and pumping characteristics of engine oils;
focus on the technological changes that have occurred since the completion of the last round of low-temperature engine and bench test studies
and bring to light new information that will help determine whether the cranking,starting, and pumping needs of present-day engines are adequatelyserved.
The Development of European Test Methods for the Measurement of Engine Oil Viscosities at Low Temperatures
Bates T., Huby F., Jordan C., Müller H., Vickars M.
Low Temperature Pumpability in Gasoline Engines: Establishing Performance at Critical Locations
Kopko R., Machleder W., O'Mara J., Stambaugh R.
Passenger Car and Heavy Truck Cold Cranking Studies - Effects of Oil Viscosity and Vehicle Type
Alexander A., MacAlpine G., May C., Smith C.