Published: Jan 1960
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A discussion of the composition of industrial water and water-formed deposits must include the terms used by different industries, methods of reporting results of analyses, methods of interpreting these analyses, and systems for converting results of analyses into other terms that may be better understood by the users of water. In addition, the composition of water must be classified so that a particular user can choose the best supply for his purpose or forecast what difficulties might arise from the use of the water available. A user should know the general composition of his water and how it changes with the seasons. If deposits occur, he should be able to identify or classify the type of deposit formed so that he can trace its source and decide upon remedies. The range of composition of industrial water and of the deposits formed by these waters varies tremendously. Water is relatively pure when formed in clouds, but it absorbs gases from the air, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, during its fall as rain. Upon reaching the earth, water dissolves materials with which it comes in contact; these depend upon the composition of the soil or rocks in the locality. Water also becomes polluted with industrial wastes and sewage from factories and cities. Water flowing in surface or underground streams continues to pick up substances. Accumulations of insoluble material derived from water, or formed by the reaction of water with surfaces in contact with it, are called water-formed deposits. It is often the duty of the chemist to analyze water intended for use and, from this analysis, to attempt to forecast what deposits or other undesirable conditions it might cause.