Published: Jan 1967
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The effects of residual elements in austenitic stainless steels are of considerable importance in welding. Many unusual occurrences suspected to be related to residual elements have been encountered, including cracking, porosity, slag formation, corrosion susceptibility, and embrittlement. Residual elements are difficult to control and trace because the weld metal may accumulate the residual element from such sources as the base metal, filler metal, fluxes, and shielding gases. Because great effort regularly is made to circumvent difficulties through the welding procedure, many phenomena believed to be related to residuals escape investigation and are not documented. Three problem areas of current interest are reviewed: (a) slag formation on weld metal which interferes with the joining process, (b) porosity in weld metal as produced by nitrogen containing compounds in the base metal, and (c) cracking in weld metal and the heat-affected zones. A need is shown for more exacting knowledge of the atomistic distribution of residual elements in the various forms of austenitic stainless steels, such as weld metal and wrought or cast base metal, because their behavior in welding varies greatly with microstructural condition.
metals, stainless steels, precipitation hardening, welding, austenitic stainless steels, slags, blowholes, porosity, cracking, fluxes, heat-affected zone, residual elements, hot cracking, arc welding, electron beam welding
Linnert, G. E.
Supervisor, welding research, research and technology, Armco Steel Corp., Middletown, Ohio