STP257

    Microscopical Evaluation of Cotton Finishing Treatments

    Published: Jan 1959


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    Abstract

    The laboratories of the textile industry expend considerable time and money attempting to improve wrinkle resistance of cotton fabrics. This paper defines the function of the microscopist in these research efforts which are directed both toward empirical formulation for commercial application and fundamental investigations of reaction mechanisms. After explaining the architecture of the cotton fiber which must be thoroughly understood for proper interpretation of microscopical phenomena, the authors turn to the different types of cotton finishing—purification of the fiber for removal of noncellulosic substances which prevent complete wetting and thereby subsequent processing, and physical modification of the fiber through treatment with chemicals which, by altering the crystalline structure of the fiber, permanently change its properties. The paper considers also additive finishing through coatings or impregnants which cause desirable modifications of yarns and fabrics, and finishing through chemical modification of the cellulose which produces new substances with entirely different chemical and physical properties but without changing the form of the fiber. The paper discusses techniques of staining, cross-sectioning, swelling and dissolution, and refractive index determination in optical microscopy and techniques of replication, fragmentation, ultrathin sectioning, and swelling and dissolution in specimen preparation for electron microscopy in the investigation of such treatments. It is supplemented by micrographs illustrative of optical and electron microscope observations.


    Author Information:

    Rollins, Mary L.
    Southern Regional Research LaboratoryU. S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, La.

    DeGruy, Ines V.
    Southern Regional Research LaboratoryU. S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, La.

    Tripp, Verne W.
    Southern Regional Research LaboratoryU. S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, La.

    Moore, Anna T.
    Southern Regional Research LaboratoryU. S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, La.


    Paper ID: STP46956S

    Committee/Subcommittee: E42.15

    DOI: 10.1520/STP46956S


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