Published: May 1967
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In many areas of chemistry, physics, and technology it is important to have a detailed understanding of the structure of clean solid surfaces, their physical properties, and their chemical properties. Some representative areas where this understanding is necessary are adhesion, friction, boundary lubrication, crystal growth, catalysis, composite materials, corrosion, microelectronics, field emission cathodes, gas/solid energy exchange, etc. To generate such information it is necessary to probe the chemical and physical nature of well-defined, clean surfaces. Surface defects, surface roughness, and adsorbed impurities all complicate the attainment of a clean surface. For the purpose of this paper a clean surface is taken to be “one free of all but a few per cent of a single monolayer of foreign atoms, either adsorbed on or substitutionally replacing surface atoms of the parent lattice.”
Roberts, R. W.
General Electric Research Center,