STP1266: Injury Mechanism of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Alpine Skiing: Case Studies

    Fischer, JF
    Staff physicians, Hôpital Orthopédique de la Suisse Romande, Lausanne,

    Loureiro, O
    Mechanical engineers, Laboratoire de mécanique appliquée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (LMA-EPFL), ME Ecublens, Lausanne,

    Leyvraz, PF
    Staff physicians, Hôpital Orthopédique de la Suisse Romande, Lausanne,

    Bally, A
    Mechanical engineers, Laboratoire de mécanique appliquée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (LMA-EPFL), ME Ecublens, Lausanne,

    Pages: 10    Published: Jan 1996


    Abstract

    The paper reports six case studies of skiers who sustained knee ligament injuries. The aim of this study is to better understand the dynamic mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in alpine skiing. To make these case studies, skiers were provided with a questionnaire, were diagnosed by either arthroscopy or surgery, had their equipment tested, and were interviewed. The purpose of the questionnaire and the interview was to learn the details of fall mechanics in an effort to infer the loads responsible for injury. The results indicated that in all six cases, injury occurred without binding release. Although the mechanisms varied, the principal loads common to most of the injuries were internal/external axial moments often combined with anterior drawer loads. The improvements on the actual equipment should concern its behavior when confronted with combined loads producing friction in the system. The authors concluded that for lateral release at the toe, there should be a better compensation of the vertical parasite forces and an improvement of the antifriction devices. In order to prevent excessive anterior drawer loads on the ACL an additional release direction of the binding system, especially backwards, could, if properly adjusted, enhance the opportunities of early release in a dangerous backward lean “out of control” position.

    Keywords:

    alpine skiing, ski injuries, boot binding system, injury mechanism, anterior cruciate ligament, knee injuries


    Paper ID: STP37936S

    Committee/Subcommittee: F27.10

    DOI: 10.1520/STP37936S


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