STP1266: A Method for Obtaining 3-D Data in Alpine Skiing Using Pan-and-Tilt Cameras with Zoom Lenses

    Mössner, M
    Research assistant, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,

    Kaps, P
    Associate professor, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,

    Nachbauer, W
    Associate professor, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,

    Pages: 10    Published: Jan 1996


    Abstract

    The direct linear transformation (DLT) was applied for three-dimensional reconstruction in alpine skiing. Because of the large field of view it is necessary to follow the skier with the cameras to receive frames with a sufficiently large image of the skier. In our implementation, the DLT parameters are computed for each frame of each camera separately. Consequently it is possible to rotate the cameras and to zoom the lenses. The locations of the cameras need not be known. Control points were distributed on the slope. Their coordinates were determined by geodetic surveying. The method requires at least six control points visible in each frame. Using more than six control points reduces the reconstruction error considerably. Under optimal conditions the mean errors are less than 5 cm in each coordinate. This accuracy is sufficient for inverse dynamics if the data are smoothed and the sampling frequency is adequate.

    Keywords:

    Alpine skiing, kinematic analysis, direct linear transformation, pan-and-tilt cameras, zoom lenses, total least squares, accuracy assessment


    Paper ID: STP37925S

    Committee/Subcommittee: F27.10

    DOI: 10.1520/STP37925S


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