STP865

    Comparison of Laboratory and Field Assessment of Fluorence—Part I: Effects of Fluorence on the Survival, Growth, Reproduction, and Behavior of Aquatic Organisms in Laboratory Tests

    Published: Jan 1985


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    Abstract

    Static toxicity tests were conducted with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorene on daphnids (Daphnia magna), larval midges (Chironomus riparius), amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), snails (Mudalia potosensis), mayflies (Hexagenia bilineata), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), aquatic macrophytes (Chara sp.), and green algae (Selanastrum capricornutum). Daphnia magna was the most sensitive organism tested with a 48-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.43 mg/L. Fathead minnows were the least sensitive species, with no mortality at fluorene concentrations as high as 100 mg/L. In a 14-day test, fluorene exposure inhibited algal production at a threshold level of approximately 3.0 mg/L.

    Complete life cycle chronic toxicity tests were conducted with fluorene on daphnids and larval midges. Daphnid reproduction was significantly reduced at fluorene levels of 0.125 mg/L after 14 days. Emergence of larval midges was delayed at a concentration of 0.6 mg/L.

    In a 30-day partial life cycle study that was conducted to determine the impact of fluorene on growth, survival, and behavior of fingerling bluegill, survival was reduced at exposures of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L and growth was inhibited at exposures of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L. Measurements of several behavioral characteristics indicated impairment of swimming and feeding activities at fluorene concentrations as low as 0.12 mg/L. Vulnerability of bluegill to predation was also increased by fluorene exposure. Results of these behavioral tests indicated that fish were adversely affected at fluorene levels below those predicted by the standard chronic toxicity measurements of growth and survival.

    Keywords:

    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum by-products, fluorene, priority pollutant, toxicity, fish, aquatic invertebrates, green algae, behavior, aquatic toxicology, aquatic ecosystems


    Author Information:

    Finger, SE
    Aquatic ecologist, behaviorist, invertebrate toxicologist, aquatic ecologist, and leader, Ecosystem Research Section, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Fisheries Research LaboratoryWater Resources, Laboratory, National Park Service, Colorado State University, ColumbiaFt. Collins, MOCO

    Little, EF
    Aquatic ecologist, behaviorist, invertebrate toxicologist, aquatic ecologist, and leader, Ecosystem Research Section, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Fisheries Research LaboratoryWater Resources, Laboratory, National Park Service, Colorado State University, ColumbiaFt. Collins, MOCO

    Henry, MG
    Aquatic ecologist, behaviorist, invertebrate toxicologist, aquatic ecologist, and leader, Ecosystem Research Section, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Fisheries Research LaboratoryWater Resources, Laboratory, National Park Service, Colorado State University, ColumbiaFt. Collins, MOCO

    Fairchild, JF
    Aquatic ecologist, behaviorist, invertebrate toxicologist, aquatic ecologist, and leader, Ecosystem Research Section, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Fisheries Research LaboratoryWater Resources, Laboratory, National Park Service, Colorado State University, ColumbiaFt. Collins, MOCO

    Boyle, TP
    Aquatic ecologist, behaviorist, invertebrate toxicologist, aquatic ecologist, and leader, Ecosystem Research Section, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Fisheries Research LaboratoryWater Resources, Laboratory, National Park Service, Colorado State University, ColumbiaFt. Collins, MOCO


    Paper ID: STP35258S

    Committee/Subcommittee: E47.01

    DOI: 10.1520/STP35258S


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