Field Utilization of Clinical Measures for the Assessment of Xenobiotic Stress in Aquatic Organisms

    Published: Jan 1988

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF (332K) 18 $25   ADD TO CART
    Complete Source PDF (9.1M) 18 $70   ADD TO CART


    Histological, biochemical, and physiological measures of xenobiotic effects on aquatic organisms have been utilized extensively in laboratory exposures to document toxic effects. In spite of the ability of these measures of stress to integrate the effects of multiple stressors, and their utility to instantaneously assess the “health” of a population, to date few studies have used these methods in situ to document adverse effects of environmental stressors. This is not due to the lack of information on appropriate clinical methods. Sufficient laboratory research has developed clinical measures to the extent that they will be useful in field situations. A portion of the lack of field use of these methods is a lack of understanding of the utility and knowledge in the flexibility of these diagnostic tools. We have prepared a review of the clinical methods and present a rational scheme for the selection and use of these techniques. Examples of the use of these techniques are presented in the form of two case studies. Each case reviews the literature and recommends specific clinical measures which could be used to quantify the population level effects of the stressors involved in the pollution episode. The case studies involve assessment of the effects on aquatic organisms of pollution episodes involving acid rain and heavy metals.


    fish, invertebrates, biochemistry, histology, acid, heavy metals, metallothionein, stress, enzymes, osmoregulation, glycogen, RNA, DNA

    Author Information:

    Versteeg, DJ
    Research scientist, Environmental Safety Department, The Procter and Gamble Co., Ivorydale Technical Center, Cincinnati, OH

    Graney, RL
    Graduate student and professor, Pesticide Research CenterMichigan State University, E. Lansing, MI

    Giesy, JP
    Graduate student and professor, Pesticide Research CenterMichigan State University, E. Lansing, MI

    Committee/Subcommittee: E47.01

    DOI: 10.1520/STP34047S

    CrossRef ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.